Selanik

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Selanik

Θεσσαλονίκη

Saloniki
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Thessaloniki is located in Greece
Thessaloniki
Selanik
Thessaloniki is located in Europe
Thessaloniki
Selanik
Koordinatlar: 40 ° 38′25 ″ N 22 ° 56′08 ″ E / 40.64028°N 22.93556°E / 40.64028; 22.93556 Koordinatlar : 40 ° 38′25 ″ N 22 ° 56′08 ″ E  / 40.64028°N 22.93556°E / 40.64028; 22.93556
Ülke Yunanistan
Coğrafi bölge Makedonya
İdari bölgeOrta Makedonya
Bölgesel birimSelanik
KurulmuşMÖ 315 (2336 yıl önce)
AnonimEkim 1912 (108 yıl önce)
Belediyeler7
Devlet
 • TürBelediye başkanı-konsey hükümeti
 •  Belediye BaşkanıKonstantinos Zervas ( Bağımsız )
Alan
 •  Belediye19.307 km 2 (7.454 mil kare)
 • Kentsel
111.703 km 2 (43.129 sq mi)
 • Metro
1,285,61 km 2 (496,38 mil kare)
En yüksek rakım
250 m (820 ft)
En düşük yükseklik
0 m (0 ft)
Nüfus
 (2011) [4]
 •  Belediye325.182
 • Sıra2. şehir, 2. metro Yunanistan'da
 •  Kentsel
824.676 [3]
 •  Metro
1.030.338 [3]
Demonim (ler)Selanik , Selanik
Saat dilimiUTC + 2 ( EET )
 • Yaz ( DST )UTC + 3 ( EEST )
Posta kodları
53xxx, 54xxx, 55xxx, 56xxx
Telefon2310
Araç kaydıNAx-xxxx ile NXx-xxxx arası
Koruyucu azizSaint Demetrius (26 Ekim)
Gayri safi bölgesel yurtiçi hasıla ( SAGP 2015)18,77 milyar € (20,83 milyar $) [5]
 • Kişi başına16.900 € [5]
İnternet sitesiwww.thessaloniki.gr

Selanik ( / ˌ İçeride ISTV melerin RWMAIWi'nin ɛ s ə l ə n Ben bir k i / ; Rum : Θεσσαλονίκη ,[θesalonici] ( dinlemek )About this sound olarak da bilinir,) Thessalonica'da ( : İngiliz / ˌ İçeride ISTV melerin RWMAIWi'nin ɛ s ə l ə N k ə , ˌ İçeride ISTV melerin RWMAIWi'nin ɛ s ə l ɒ N ɪ k ə / ), Saloniki veya Selanik ( / s ə l ɒ n ɪ k ə , ˌ s æ l ə N i k ə /), birikinci büyük kentiiçindeYunanistan'daonun içinde 1 milyondan fazla nüfusu ile,metropolvesermayearasındacoğrafi bölgeyeaitMakedonya,idari bölgeiçindeMerkez MakedonyaveMakedonya Yerinden Yönetim ve Trakya.[6][7]Ayrıca olarak Yunanca bilinmektedirΣυμπρωτεύουσα η(Simprotévousa i), kelimenin tam anlamıyla "ko-sermaye",[8]olarak tarihsel durumuna referansΣυμβασιλεύουσα ( Simvasilévousa ) veya "eş-hükümdarlık" şehir Doğu Roma (Bizans) İmparatorluğu yanında, Konstantinopolis . [9]

Selanik, Ege Denizi'nin kuzeybatı köşesinde , Thermaic Körfezi'nde yer almaktadır . Batıda Axios deltası ile sınırlanmıştır . Selanik belediye , tarihi merkezinde, 2011 yılında 325,182 nüfusu vardı [4] ise Selanik Kentsel Alan 824,676 nüfusu vardı [4] ve Selanik metropolitan alan 2011 yılında 1.030.338 nüfusu vardı [4] [3] Yunanistan'ın ikinci büyük ekonomik, endüstriyel, ticari ve politik merkezidir; özellikle Selanik Limanı aracılığıyla Yunanistan ve güneydoğu Avrupa için önemli bir ulaşım merkezidir.. [10] Şehir genel olarak festivalleri, etkinlikleri ve canlı kültürel yaşamıyla ünlüdür [11] ve Yunanistan'ın kültür başkenti olarak kabul edilir. [11] gibi olaylar Selanik Uluslararası Fuarı ve Selanik Uluslararası Film Festivali'nde Kent ayrıca en büyüğü yılda iki kez toplantıya ev sahipliği yaparken, her yıl düzenlenmektedir Yunan diasporasının . [12] Selanik, 2014 Avrupa Gençlik Başkenti idi . [13]

Selanik şehri M.Ö. 315 yılında Makedonyalı Cassander tarafından kurulmuş ve adını Makedonyalı II. Philip'in kızı ve Büyük İskender'in kız kardeşi olan karısı Selanik'ten almıştır . Roma döneminin önemli bir metropolü olan Selanik, Bizans İmparatorluğu'nun en büyük ikinci ve en zengin kentiydi. 1430'da Osmanlılar tarafından fethedildi ve yaklaşık beş yüzyıl Türk egemenliği boyunca önemli bir liman ve çok etnikli metropol olarak kaldı. 8 Kasım 1912'de Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'ndan Yunanistan'a geçti. Bir UNESCO olan Selanik'in Paleochristian ve Bizans anıtları da dahil olmak üzere çok sayıda önemli Bizans anıtına ev sahipliği yapıyor. Dünya Miras Alanı ve birkaç Roma , Osmanlı ve Sefarad Yahudi yapısı. Şehrin ana üniversitesi olan Aristoteles Üniversitesi , Yunanistan ve Balkanlar'ın en büyüğüdür . [14]

Selanik, Yunanistan'da popüler bir turizm merkezidir. National Geographic Dergisi 2013'te Selanik'i dünya çapındaki en önemli turistik yerlerine dahil ederken [15] , 2014'te Financial Times FDI dergisi (Foreign Direct Investments) Selanik'i beşeri sermaye ve yaşam tarzı açısından geleceğin en iyi orta ölçekli Avrupa şehri olarak ilan etti. [16] [17] Sokak fotoğrafçıları arasında Selanik'in merkezi, Yunanistan'daki sokak fotoğrafçılığı için en popüler yer olarak kabul ediliyor . [18]

İsimler ve etimoloji [ değiştir ]

Yazıtı okuma "Kime Kraliçesi Thessalonike arasında (kızı) Philip ", Selanik Arkeoloji Müzesi

Kentin orijinal ismi Θεσσαλονίκη Thessalonike . Bu prenses almıştır Makedonyalı Thessalonike , yarısı kardeş Büyük İskender'in ad aracı "Thessalian zafer", Θεσσαλός Thessalos ve Νίκη 'zafer' ( Nike Makedon zaferini onurlandıran,) Crocus Field Savaşı ( MÖ 353/352).

Küçük varyantları da dahil olmak üzere, bulunan Θετταλονίκη Thettaloníkē , [19] [20] Θεσσαλονίκεια Thessaloníkeia , [21] Θεσσαλονείκη Thessalonike ve Θεσσαλονικέων Thessalonikéon . [22] [23]

Σαλονίκη Selanik adı ilk olarak Chronicle of the Morea'da (14. yüzyıl) Yunancada onaylanmıştır ve halk şarkılarında yaygındır , ancak al- İdrisi'nin zaten 12. yüzyılda Salunik dediği gibi daha önce ortaya çıkmış olmalıdır . : Diğer dillerde şehrin adının temelidir Солѹнъ ( Solunŭ ) 'de Eski Kilise Slav , סלוניקה ( Selânik olarak) Yahudi-İspanyolca , סלוניקי ( Saloniki olarak) İbranice , سلانیك ( Selanik )' deOsmanlı Türk ve Selanik de çağdaş Türkçe , Salonicco içinde İtalyan , Solun veya Солун içinde yerel ve komşu Güney Slav dilleri , Салоники ( Saloniki olarak) Rusça ve Saruna içinde Aromanian . [24]

İngilizce'de şehir Selanik, Selanik, Selanik, Selanik, Selanik, Selanik, Selanik veya Selanik olarak adlandırılabilir. Basılı metinlerde, 20. yüzyılın başlarına kadar en yaygın isim ve yazım Selanik idi; 20. yüzyılın geri kalanında Selanik'teydi. 1985 civarında, en yaygın tek isim Selanik oldu. [25] [26] Birlikte alınan Latince -a sonlu formlar fonetik Yunanca -i ile bitenlerden daha yaygın ve eski transliterasyon -e'den çok daha yaygındır . [27]

Selanik, Balkan Savaşları sırasında Yunanistan Krallığı'na katıldığı 1912'de şehrin resmi adı olarak yeniden canlandırıldı . [28] Yerel konuşmada, şehrin adı tipik olarak Modern Makedon aksanıyla koyu ve derin bir L karakteristiği ile telaffuz edilir . [29] [30] İsim genellikle Θεσ / νίκη olarak kısaltılır . [31]

Tarih [ düzenle ]

Klasik antik çağdan Roma İmparatorluğu'na [ değiştir ]

Antipater'ın oğlu ve Selanik şehrinin kurucusu Cassander'ı tasvir eden antik sikke

Şehir, M.Ö. 315 yıllarında , Makedonya Kralı Cassander tarafından , antik Therma kentinin ve diğer 26 yerel köyün bulunduğu yerde veya yakınında kurulmuştur . [32] [33] Karısıyla sonra adını Thessalonike , [34] bir üvey kız kardeşi İskender kızı olarak Makedonya ve prenses Philip II . Makedonya krallığı altında şehir kendi özerkliğini ve parlamentosunu [35] korudu ve Makedonya'nın en önemli şehri haline geldi. [34]

MÖ 168'de Makedonya Krallığı'nın düşüşünden sonra, MÖ 148'de Selanik, Makedonya'nın Roma eyaletinin başkenti oldu . [36] Selanik bir oldu serbest şehir içinde Roma Cumhuriyeti'nde altında Mark Antony 41 M.Ö.. [34] [37] O üzerinde bulunan önemli bir ticaret merkezi olmak büyüdü Via Egnatia , [38] bağlayan yolun Dyrrhachium ile Bizans , [39] Selanik ve bu şekilde ticaretin büyük bir merkezler arasındaki ticareti kolaylaştırmıştır Roma ve Bizans . [40]Selanik ayrıca, Morava ve Axios nehir vadilerinin vadileri boyunca Balkanlar'dan geçen ana kuzey-güney yolunun güney ucunda uzanır ve böylece Balkanlar'ı Yunanistan'ın geri kalanıyla bağlar. [41] Şehir, Makedonya'nın dört Roma bölgesinden birinin başkenti oldu; [38] daha sonra Balkan yarımadasındaki önemi nedeniyle Roma İmparatorluğu'nun tüm Yunan eyaletlerinin başkenti oldu .

Roma İmparatorluğu zamanında, MS 50 civarında, Selanik aynı zamanda Hristiyanlığın ilk merkezlerinden biriydi ; Pavlus ikinci misyonerlik yolculuğunda, üç Şabat günü bu şehrin baş sinagogunu ziyaret etti ve Selanik'in ilk Hıristiyan kilisesinin tohumlarını attı. Daha sonra Pavlus, Selanik'teki yeni kiliseye, İncil kanonunda Birinci ve İkinci Selanikliler olarak korunan iki mektup yazdı . Bazı akademisyenler Selanikliler'e Yazılan İlk Mektubun Yeni Ahit'in ilk yazılı kitabı olduğunu savunuyorlar . [42]

Şehirdeki birkaç Roma anıtından biri ve UNESCO Dünya Mirası Alanı olan MS 4. yüzyıla ait Galerius Rotunda

MS 306'da Selanik, Galerius'un öldürdüğü söylenen bir Hıristiyan olan koruyucu aziz Aziz Demetrius'u satın aldı . Çoğu bilim insanı, Hippolyte Delehaye'nin Demetrius'un Selanik yerlisi olmadığı teorisine katılıyor , ancak saygı duyulması, Balkanlar'daki ana askeri üs olarak Sirmium'un yerini aldığında Selanik'e aktarıldı . [43] Bir bazilikal Aziz Demetrius, adanmış kilise Hagios Demetrios , ilk MS 5. yüzyılda inşa edilmiş ve artık dir UNESCO Dünya Miras .

Roma Empire ayrıldığında Tetrarşi'nin , Thessaloniki altında Empire dört kısımlarından birinin idare sermaye haline Galerius Maximianus Sezar , [44] [45] Galerius bir imperial saraya, yeni bir devreye burada hippodrome bir zafer kemer ve diğerleri arasında bir türbe . [45] [46] [47]

379'da, Roma İllyricum Eyaleti Doğu ve Batı Roma İmparatorlukları arasında bölündüğünde, Selanik yeni İllyricum Eyaletinin başkenti oldu. [38] Ertesi yıl, Selanik Fermanı yapılan Hıristiyanlık devlet dini Roma İmparatorluğu . [48] 390 yılında, Roma İmparatoru I. Theodosius komutasındaki Gotik birlikler , Gotik askerlere karşı ayaklanan Selanik sakinlerine karşı bir katliam başlattı . Zamanına göre Roma Güz 476'da, Selanik ikinci büyük şehri olan Doğu Roma İmparatorluğu .[40]

Bizans dönemi ve Orta Çağ [ değiştir ]

Şehrin merkezinde Acheiropoietos Kilisesi (5. yüzyıl)

İlk yıllarından itibaren Bizans İmparatorluğu , Selanik sonra İmparatorluğu'nda ikinci şehir olarak kabul edildi Konstantinopolis , [49] [50] [51] Her iki zenginlik ve büyüklük açısından. [49] 12. yüzyılın ortalarında 150.000 nüfuslu. [52] Şehir, 1423'te Venedik kontrolüne geçene kadar bu statüyü elinde tuttu. 14. yüzyılda şehrin nüfusu 100.000 ila 150.000'i aştı, [53] [54] [55] o zamanki Londra'dan daha büyük hale geldi . [56]

6. ve 7. yüzyıllarda Selanik çevresindeki bölge , Aziz Demetrius Mucizeleri'nde anlatıldığı gibi, şehri defalarca başarısızlıkla kuşatan Avarlar ve Slavlar tarafından işgal edildi . [57] Geleneksel tarih yazımı, birçok Slav'ın Selanik'in hinterlandına yerleştiğini belirtir; [58] Ancak, modern bilim adamları bu göçün daha önce düşünülenden çok daha küçük bir ölçekte olduğunu düşünüyorlar. [58] [59] 9. yüzyılda, her ikisi de şehrin yerlisi olan Bizans Yunan misyonerleri Cyril ve Methodius , Slavların ilk edebi dili olan Eski Kilise Slavcasını yarattı., büyük olasılıkla memleketlerinin hinterlandında kullanılan Slav lehçesine dayanmaktadır. [60] [61] [62] [63] [64]

904 yılında Bizans'ın önderlik ettiği bir deniz saldırısı İslam'a dönüştü ( Trabluslu Leo dahil ) şehrin yağmalanmasıyla sonuçlandı . [65] [66]

Şehrin ekonomik genişlemesi, Komnenoi imparatorlarının egemenliği Bizans kontrolünü kuzeye doğru genişlettiğinden , 12. yüzyıl boyunca devam etti . Selanik 1204 yılında Bizans elinden geçti, [67] Konstantinopolis zaman yakalanan güçleri tarafından Dördüncü Haçlı ve şehir ve onun etrafındaki toprakları dahil Selanik Krallığı [68] - bu daha sonra büyük oldu vasal arasında Latin İmparatorluğu . 1224 yılında Selanik Krallığı, Theodore Komnenos Doukas komutasındaki eski Bizans İmparatorluğu'ndan kalan Despotate of Epirus tarafından istila edildi.kendini İmparator olarak taçlandıran [69] ve şehir, kısa ömürlü Selanik İmparatorluğunun başkenti oldu . [69] [70] [71] [72] Ancak 1230'da Klokotnitsa'daki yenilgisinin ardından , [69] [73] Selanik İmparatorluğu , bu kez 1246'da tekrar toparlanıncaya kadar İkinci Bulgar İmparatorluğu'nun bir vasal devleti oldu. İznik İmparatorluğu tarafından . [69]

1342'de [74] şehir , denizcilerden ve yoksullardan oluşan anti-aristokratik bir parti olan ve bugünlerde sosyal-devrimci olarak tanımlanan [75] Zealot Komünü'nün yükselişini gördü . [74] Şehir, imparatorluğun geri kalanından fiilen bağımsızdı, [74] [75] [76] kendi hükümetine, bir tür cumhuriyete sahipti. [74] Bağnaz hareketi 1350'de devrildi ve şehir İmparatorluğun geri kalanıyla yeniden birleşti. [74]

Yakalama ve Gelibolu'da tarafından Osmanlıların 1354'de güney hızlı bir Türk genişleme başladı Balkanlar Osmanlıların kendileri tarafından ve yarı bağımsız Türk hem yürütülen, gazi savaşçı bantlar. 1369'da Osmanlılar, 1453'e kadar yeni başkentleri olan Edirne'yi (modern Edirne ) fethetmeyi başardılar . [77] II.Manuel Palaiologos (r. 1391-1425) tarafından yönetilen Selanik, 1383-1387 yıllarında uzun bir kuşatmadan sonra , doğu ve orta Makedonya'nın çoğu ile birlikte Sultan I. Murad kuvvetlerine teslim oldu .[78] Başlangıçta, teslim şehirler ödenmesi karşılığında tam özerklik izin verildi kharaj anket vergi .Ancakİmparator John V Palaiologos'un 1391'deölümünün ardındanII. Manuel Osmanlı'nın gözetiminden kaçarak, babasının yerine imparator olarak taç giydiği Konstantinopolis'e gitti. Bu, geri kalan Bizans topraklarını yerle bir edenSultan I. Bayezid'i kızdırdıve ardından fırtına tarafından yakalanan ve büyük ölçüde tahrip olan Hrisopolis'e yöneldi. [79]Selanik de bu zamanda, muhtemelen kısa bir direnişin ardından tekrar Osmanlı yönetimine teslim oldu, ancak daha yumuşak bir şekilde muamele gördü: Şehir tam Osmanlı kontrolü altına alınmasına rağmen, Hristiyan nüfus ve Kilise mülklerinin çoğunu elinde tuttu ve şehir kurumlarını korudu. . [80] [81]

Selanik , 1402'de Tamerlane'ye karşı Ankara Muharebesi'nde Bayezid'in ezici yenilgisi ve yakalanmasının ardından çıkan Osmanlı halefiyet mücadelesinde , İmparator II. Manuel'in, Bayezid'in en büyük oğlu Süleyman'ın yanında yer aldığı 1403 yılına kadar Osmanlı'nın elinde kaldı. içinde Gelibolu Antlaşması Bizans imparatoru Selanik dönüşü, bir kısmını kendi iç bölgelerin, güvenli Chalcidice nehirleri arasındaki yarımada ve kıyı bölgesini Strymon ve Pineios . [82] [83] Thessalonica ve bölgesinde bağımsız bir şekilde verildi appanageiçin John VII Palaiologos . 1408'deki ölümünden sonra, 1415'e kadar Demetrios Leontares tarafından denetlenen Manuel'in üçüncü oğlu Despot Andronikos Palaiologos'un yerini aldı . Türkler kendi iç savaşlarıyla meşgul oldukları için Selanik 1403'ten sonra görece bir barış ve refah dönemi yaşadı. , ancak 1412'de ( Musa Çelebi [84] ) ve 1416'da ( Mustafa Çelebi'nin I. Mehmed'e [85] karşı ayaklanması sırasında) rakip Osmanlı taklitçileri tarafından saldırıya uğradı . [86] [87]Osmanlı iç savaşı sona erdiğinde kent üzerindeki Türk baskısı yeniden artmaya başladı. Tıpkı 1383-1387 kuşatmasında olduğu gibi, bu, şehir içinde, gerekirse Batı'nın yardımıyla direnişi destekleyen gruplar arasında keskin bir görüş ayrılığına veya Osmanlı'ya boyun eğmesine yol açtı. [88]

1423'te Despot Andronikos Palaiologos , şehri kuşatan Osmanlılardan korunabileceği umuduyla onu Venedik Cumhuriyeti'ne devretti . Venedikliler, Selanik'i 29 Mart 1430'da Osmanlı Sultanı II . Murad tarafından ele geçirilinceye kadar tuttu. [89]

Osmanlı dönemi [ değiştir ]

Bey Hamamı'ndaki erkek hamamlarının sıcak odası (1444).

Sultan II. Murad 1430'da Selanik'i ele geçirip yağmaladığında , [90] çağdaş raporlar şehrin nüfusunun yaklaşık beşte birinin köleleştirildiğini tahmin ediyordu. [91] Şehrin ele geçirilmesini sağlamak ve çift duvarlarını atlamak için Osmanlı topçusu kullanıldı. [90] Selanik'in fethi üzerine, aralarında Theodorus Gaza "Selanik" ve Andronicus Callistus gibi entelektüeller de dahil olmak üzere bazı sakinleri [92] kaçtı . [93] Ancak, egemenliğin Bizans İmparatorluğu'ndan Osmanlı İmparatorluğuna geçişi, şehrin büyük bir imparatorluk şehri ve ticaret merkezi olarak prestijini etkilemedi. [94][95] Selanik ve Smyrna , boyutları Konstantinopolis'ten daha küçük olsalarda, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'nun en önemli ticaret merkezleriydi. [94] Selanik'in önemi alanında çoğunlukla oldu nakliye , [94] aynı zamanda üretiminde, [95] şehrin iş çoğu etnik tarafından kontrol edilirken Rumlar . [94]

1500-1950 arası Selanik demografisi [96]

Osmanlı döneminde, şehrin Osmanlı Müslüman nüfusu ( Türk kökenli olanlar ve ayrıca Arnavut Müslüman , Bulgar Müslüman ve din değiştiren Rum Müslüman dahil ) önemli ölçüde artmıştır. 1478 nüfus sayımına göre Selânik ( Osmanlı Türkçesi : سلانیك ), şehir Osmanlı Türkçesiyle tanınırken , 6.094 Rum Ortodoks hane , 4.320 Müslüman ve bazı Katolik hanelere sahipti . Nüfus sayımına, sonradan gelen Yahudi nüfusunun akının halihazırda var olan Roman topluluğuyla [97] bağlantılı olmadığını düşündüren hiçbir Yahudi kaydedilmedi . [98]Bununla birlikte, 15. yüzyıldan 16. yüzyıla geçtikten kısa bir süre sonra, yaklaşık 20.000 Sefarad Yahudisi , 1492 Elhamra Kararnamesi ile İspanya'dan sürüldükten sonra İber Yarımadası'ndan Yunanistan'a göç etti . [99] c. 1500 hane sayısı 7.986 Rum, 8.575 Müslüman ve 3.770 Yahudi'ye yükseldi. 1519'a gelindiğinde, Sefarad Yahudi haneleri şehir nüfusunun% 54'ü olan 15.715'i sayıyordu. Bazı tarihçiler, Osmanlı rejiminin Yahudi yerleşimine davetinin, etnik Rum nüfusun şehre hakim olmasını engellemek için bir strateji olduğunu düşünüyor. [100]Şehir, hem dünyanın en büyük Yahudi şehri hem de 16. yüzyılda dünyadaki tek Yahudi çoğunluk şehri haline geldi. Sonuç olarak, Selanik dünyanın her yerinden zulüm gören Yahudileri cezbetti. [101]

Beyaz Selanik Kule kenarında, Nikis Caddesi 1535 yılında 1430 ve yeniden inşa inşa kent duvarlarına önemli bir Osmanlı ek, [90] ve şehrin sembolü

Selanik, 1826 yılına kadar geniş Rumeli Eyalet (Balkanlar) [102] içinde Selanik Sancağı'nın başkenti ve ardından Selanik Eyalet'in (1867'den sonra Selanik Vilayeti ) başkentiydi . [103] [104] Bu, 1826-1912 yılları arasında Selanik, Serres ve Drama sancaklarından oluşuyordu . [105]

1821 baharında Yunan Kurtuluş Savaşı'nın patlak vermesiyle vali Yusuf Bey, karargahında 400'den fazla rehineyi hapse attı. Yusuf, 18 Mayıs'ta Halkidiki köylerinde ayaklanmayı öğrendiğinde, rehinelerinin yarısının gözleri önünde katledilmesini emretti. Selanik'in mullası Hayrıülah, Yusuf'un misillemelerini şu şekilde anlatır: "Selanik sokaklarında her gün ve her gece bağırmaktan ve inlemekten başka bir şey duymuyorsunuz. Görünen o ki Yusuf Bey, Yeniçeri Ağası, Subaşı, hocalar ve ulemaların hepsi çıldırmış durumda. " [106] Kentteki Yunan toplumunun toparlanması yüzyılın sonuna kadar sürecekti. [107]

Selanik aynı zamanda yeniçerilerin yetiştirildiği bir Yeniçeri kalesiydi. Haziran 1826'da normal Osmanlı askerleri Selanik'teki Yeniçeri üssüne saldırıp yok ederken, aynı zamanda Osmanlı tarihinde Hayırlı Olay olarak bilinen bir olay olan 10.000'den fazla Yeniçeri'yi öldürdü . [108] 1870-1917'de ekonomik büyümenin etkisiyle şehrin nüfusu% 70 artarak 1917'de 135.000'e ulaştı. [109]

Osmanlı'nın şehir üzerindeki kontrolünün son birkaç on yılı, özellikle şehrin altyapısı açısından bir canlanma dönemiydi. O zamanlar, şehrin Osmanlı yönetimi, Hükümet Konağı'nın [110] oluşturulmasıyla "resmi" bir yüz edinirken , her ikisinin de Avrupa yüzünü yansıtmak için eklektik tarzda bir dizi yeni kamu binası inşa edildi . Selanik ve Osmanlı İmparatorluğu. [110] [111] Surlar 1869 ile 1889 arasında yıkıldı, [112] şehrin planlı genişlemesi için yapılan çabalar 1879 gibi erken bir zamanda anlaşılıyor, [113] ilk tramvay servisi 1888'de başladı [114]1908'de şehrin sokakları elektrik lamba direkleriyle aydınlatıldı. [115] 1888'de Doğu Demiryolu, Selanik'i demiryolu ile Belgrad üzerinden Orta Avrupa'ya ve 1893'te Manastır'a bağlarken, Selanik-İstanbul Kavşağı Demiryolu 1896'da Konstantinopolis'e bağladı . [113]

20. yüzyıl ve bu yana [ değiştir ]

The seafront of Thessaloniki, as it was in 1917

In the early 20th century, Thessaloniki was in the center of radical activities by various groups; the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, founded in 1897,[116] and the Greek Macedonian Committee, founded in 1903.[117] In 1903 an anarchist group known as the Boatmen of Thessaloniki planted bombs in several buildings in Thessaloniki, including the Ottoman Bank, with some assistance from the IMRO. The Greek consulate in Ottoman Thessaloniki (now the Museum of the Macedonian Struggle) served as the center of operations for the Greek guerillas.

Bu dönemde ve 16. yüzyıldan beri Selanik'in Yahudi unsuru en baskın olanıydı; Avrupa'da Yahudilerin toplam nüfusun çoğunluğunu oluşturduğu tek şehirdi . [118] Şehir, etnik açıdan çeşitli ve kozmopolitti . 1890'da nüfusu% 47'si Yahudi olmak üzere 118.000'e yükseldi, ardından Türkler (% 22), Yunanlılar (% 14), Bulgarlar (% 8), Romanlar (% 2) ve diğerleri (% 7) izledi. [119] 1913'e gelindiğinde, kentin etnik bileşimi değişti, böylece nüfus 157.889, Yahudiler% 39, ardından yine Türkler (% 29), Yunanlılar (% 25), Bulgarlar (% 4), Romanlar (% 2) ve diğerleri% 1'de. [120] Pek çok farklı din uygulandı ve Yahudi İspanyolcası da dahil olmak üzere birçok dil konuşuldu, şehirdeki Yahudiler tarafından konuşulan bir İspanyolca lehçesi .

Selanik aynı zamanda, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'nun mutlak monarşisini anayasal bir hükümetle değiştirmeyi amaçlayan bir siyasi reform hareketi olan Jön Türklerin faaliyetlerinin merkeziydi . Jön Türkler bir yeraltı hareketi olarak başladılar, sonunda 1908'e kadar Jön Türk Devrimi'ni Selanik kentinden başlattılar ve bu sayede devrimciler Osmanlı İmparatorluğu üzerinde kontrol sahibi oldular. [121] Jön Türklerin devrimin patlak vermesinde bir araya geldiği Eleftherias (Özgürlük) Meydanı adını olaydan alıyor. [122] Türkiye'nin ilk cumhurbaşkanı Mustafa Kemal Atatürk , Selanik'te doğdu ve büyüdü.

Yunanistan Kralı I. George ve Yunan ordusuyla birlikte Yunanistan Konstantin'i şehre girer.
Selanik'teki müttefik ordular, I.Dünya Savaşı
Milli Savunma Ordusu'nun 1. Taburu Makedonya cephesine doğru ilerliyor .

As Birinci Balkan Savaşı patlak, Yunanistan, Osmanlı'ya savaş ilan etti ve sınırlarını genişletti. Ne zaman Eleftherios Venizelos , Başbakan Yunan ordusu Selanik veya Manastır (şimdi doğru hareket gerekip gerekmediğini anda istendi Manastır , Kuzey Makedonya Cumhuriyeti ), Venizelos "cevabını Θεσσαλονίκη με κάθε κόστος! (" Her ne pahasına olursa Thessaloniki,! ). [123] Hem Yunanistan hem de Bulgaristan Selanik'i isterken, şehrin Osmanlı garnizonu her iki orduyla da görüşmelere başladı. [124] 8 Kasım 1912'de (26 Ekim Eski Tarz)), şehrin koruyucu azizi Aziz Demetrius'un bayram günü , Yunan Ordusu, Selanik'teki Osmanlı garnizonunun teslim olmasını kabul etti. [125] Şehrin Yunanistan'a teslim olmasından bir gün sonra Bulgar ordusu geldi ve şehrin yöneticisi Tahsin Paşa, Bulgar yetkililere "teslim ettiğim tek bir Selanikim var" dedi. [124] Sonra İkinci Balkan Savaşı , Selanik ve geri kalanı Yunan kısmının arasında Makedonya resmen tarafından Yunanistan'a ilhak edildi Bükreş Antlaşması 1913 yılında [126] Mart 1913 18 günü Yunanistan George I tarafından kentinde öldürüldüAlexandros Schinas . [127]

1915'te, I.Dünya Savaşı sırasında , büyük bir Müttefik seferi kuvveti , Alman yanlısı Bulgaristan'a karşı operasyonlar için Selanik'te bir üs kurdu. [128] Bu , Selanik Cephesi olarak da bilinen Makedonya Cephesi'nin kurulmasıyla sonuçlandı . [129] [130] 1916'da, Venizel yanlısı Yunan ordu subayları ve siviller, Müttefiklerin desteğiyle bir ayaklanma başlatarak [131] " Geçici Hükümet " adıyla Müttefik yanlısı [132] geçici bir hükümet yarattı. Milli Savunma " [131] [133]"Yeni Topraklar" ı kontrol eden ( Balkan Savaşlarında Yunanistan tarafından kazanılan topraklar, Yunan Makedonya , Kuzey Ege ve Girit adası dahil olmak üzere Kuzey Yunanistan'ın çoğu ); [131] [133] içinde Kral resmi hükümet Atina , "Atina Devleti", [131] kontrollü "Eski Yunanistan" [131] [133] geleneksel olarak monarşist idi. Selanik Devlet sonrasında Venizelos altında iki karşıt Yunan hükümetlerinin birleşmesi ile tasfiye edilmesinin feragatla ait Kral Konstantin 1917 yılında.[128] [133]

30 Aralık 1915'te Selanik'e yapılan bir Avusturya hava saldırısı birçok şehirdeki sivili alarma geçirdi ve en az bir kişiyi öldürdü ve buna karşılık oradaki Müttefik birlikleri Alman, Avusturya, Bulgar ve Türk konsolos yardımcılarını ve ailelerini ve bakmakla yükümlü oldukları kişileri tutukladı ve onları tutukladı . Selanik'teki konsolosluk binalarında bir savaş gemisi ve kütük askerleri. [134]

1917'deki Büyük Yangının havadan fotoğrafı

Şehrin eski merkezinin çoğu, 18 Ağustos 1917'de gözetimsiz bir mutfak yangınıyla kazara başlatılan 1917 Büyük Selanik Yangını tarafından tahrip edildi . [135] Yangın, 72.000 kişiyi evsiz bırakarak şehrin merkezini süpürdü; Pallis Raporuna göre bunların çoğu Yahudiydi (50.000). Sonuç olarak birçok işletme yıkıldı, nüfusun% 70'i işsiz kaldı. [135] İki kilise, çok sayıda sinagog ve cami kaybedildi. Yaklaşık 271.157 kişilik toplam nüfusun yaklaşık dörtte biri evsiz kaldı. [135] Yangının ardından hükümet hızlı bir şekilde yeniden inşayı yasakladı, böylece şehrin yeni tasarımını Avrupa tarzı şehir planına göre uygulayabilir [9]Briton Thomas Mawson da dahil olmak üzere bir grup mimar tarafından hazırlanan ve Fransız mimar Ernest Hébrard tarafından yönetilen . [135] Emlak değerleri 6.5 milyon Yunan drahmisinden 750.000'e düştü . [136]

Yunan-Türk Savaşı'nda Yunanistan'ın yenilgisinden sonra ve Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'nun dağılması sırasında Yunanistan ile Türkiye arasında nüfus mübadelesi yaşandı. [132] Eski Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'ndan sınır dışı edilen 160.000'den fazla etnik Rum - özellikle Küçük Asya'dan [137] ve Doğu Trakya'dan Yunanlılar şehre yeniden yerleştirildi, [132] demografik yapısı değişti. Ek olarak, Osmanlı Rum Müslümanları da dahil olmak üzere şehirdeki Müslümanların çoğu , yaklaşık 20.000 kişi arasında değişen Türkiye'ye sürgün edildi . [138] Bu, Yunan unsurunu egemen kıldı, [139]Yahudi nüfusu ise 14. yüzyıldan itibaren ilk kez azınlığa indirgenmiştir. [140]

1942 Temmuz'unda Selanik'teki erkek Yahudilerin kaydı Eleftherias Meydanı. Sürgün edilen Yahudilerin% 96'sı Nazi toplama kamplarında can verdi . [141]

Sırasında Dünya Savaşı Selanik ağır hücumuna uğramış Faşist İtalya'dan (232 kişi öldü birlikte, 871 yaralı ve üzeri 800 bina hasar veya Kasım 1940 tek başına yıkılan), [142] ve, başarısız olan İtalyanlar Yunanistan onların istilası , bu düştü 8 Nisan 1941'de [143] Nazi Almanyası güçleri Alman işgali altına girdi. Naziler kısa süre sonra Yahudi sakinlerini demiryollarının yakınındaki bir gettoya gitmeye zorladı ve 15 Mart 1943'te şehrin Yahudilerinin Auschwitz ve Bergen-Belsen toplama kamplarına sürülmesine başladı . [144] [145] [146] Çoğu hemengaz odaları . Auschwitz'e sürülen 45.000 Yahudiden sadece% 4'ü hayatta kaldı. [147] [148]

Reichstag'da yaptığı bir konuşmada Hitler, Balkan kampanyasının amacının Müttefiklerin Birinci Dünya Savaşı'nda yaptıkları gibi "yeni bir Makedon cephesi" kurmasını engellemek olduğunu iddia etti. Selanik'in Nazi Almanyası için önemi , başlangıçta Hitler'in onu doğrudan Üçüncü Reich'e [149] dahil etmeyi (yani Almanya'nın bir parçası haline getirmeyi) planlaması ve onu bir kukla devlet tarafından kontrol etmemesiyle gösterilebilir. gibi Yunan Devleti veya Almanya'nın bir müttefik (Selanik vaat edilmişti Yugoslavya katılmadan için ödül olarak Ekseni 25 Mart 1941). [150]Yunanistan'da işgal güçlerinin eline düşen ilk büyük şehir olduğu için, Selanik'te kurulan ilk Yunan direniş grubu ( Ελευθερία , Elefthería , "Özgürlük" adı altında ) [151] ve aynı zamanda ilk Nazi karşıtı gazete. içinde işgal edilen bölge yerde Avrupa'da , [152] adıyla da Eleftheria . Selanik ayrıca, Almanca'da "Konzentrationslager Pavlo Mela" ( Pavlos Melas Toplama Kampı) [153] olarak bilinen, direniş üyelerinin ve diğer anti-faşistlerin [153] askeri kampa dönüştürülmüş toplama kampına ev sahipliği yapıyordu.ya öldürülmek üzere tutuldu ya da diğer toplama kamplarına gönderildi. [153] 30 Ekim 1944'te, geri çekilen Alman ordusu ve Poulos Güvenlik Taburları ile yapılan çatışmalardan sonra , ELAS güçleri, Markos Vafiadis'in (Atina'daki ELAS liderliğinin ordusuna girmeme emrine uymayanlar) liderliğindeki kurtarıcılar olarak Selanik'e girdi . Kent). Bunu şehirde EAM yanlısı kutlamalar ve gösteriler izledi. [154] [155] In 1946 monarşi referandum , halk çoğunluğu Yunanistan'a geri kalanına, cumhuriyet lehine tersine oy kullandı. [156]

Savaştan sonra Selanik, 1950'ler, 1960'lar ve 1970'ler boyunca büyük ölçekli yeni altyapı ve endüstri gelişimi ile yeniden inşa edildi. Mimari hazinelerinin çoğu hala varlığını korurken, bir turizm merkezi olarak şehre değer katarken, Selanik'in birkaç erken Hıristiyan ve Bizans anıtı 1988'de UNESCO Dünya Mirası listesine eklendi . [157] 1997'de Selanik, Avrupalı olarak kutlandı. Kültür Başkenti , [158] şehir ve bölge genelinde etkinliklere sponsorluk yapıyor. O yıl 1997'nin kültürel faaliyetlerini denetlemek için kurulan ajans, 2010 yılına kadar hala varlığını sürdürüyordu. [159] 2004'te şehir bir dizi futbola ev sahipliği yaptı.2004 Yaz Olimpiyatlarının bir parçası olarak etkinlikler . [160]

Selanik bugün, limanı, Ege'nin en büyük limanlarından biri olan ve Balkan hinterlandında ticareti kolaylaştıran Selanik Limanı ile Güneydoğu Avrupa'nın en önemli ticaret ve iş merkezlerinden biri haline gelmiştir . [10] 26 Ekim 2012'de şehir, Yunanistan ile birleşmesinden bu yana yüzüncü yılını kutladı. [161] Şehir aynı zamanda Güneydoğu Avrupa'nın en büyük öğrenci merkezlerinden birini oluşturmaktadır, Yunanistan'daki en büyük öğrenci nüfusuna ev sahipliği yapmaktadır ve 2014 yılında Avrupa Gençlik Başkenti olmuştur. [13] [162]

Coğrafya [ düzenle ]

Jeoloji [ değiştir ]

Selanik , doğu kıyısında Thermaic Körfezi'nin kuzey ucunda yer alır ve güneydoğusundaki Chortiatis Dağı ile sınırlıdır . Heybetli olan yakınlığı dağ özellikle güneydoğu yönünde, aralıkları, tepeler ve fay hatlarını tarihsel jeolojik değişikliklere yatkın kenti yaptık.

Ortaçağdan beri Selanik güçlü çarptı depremler özellikle 1759, 1902, 1978 ve 1995 yılında, [163] 19-20 Haziran 1978 tarihinde, şehir uğradığı güçlü depremler bir dizi üzerinde 5.5 ve 6.5 kaydederek Richter ölçeğine . [164] [165] Sarsıntılar bir dizi bina ve antik anıtta önemli hasara neden oldu, [164] ancak şehir felakete herhangi bir büyük sorun olmadan dayandı. [165] Selanik'in merkezindeki bir apartman ikinci depremde çöktü ve çok sayıda kişinin ölümüne yol açarak son ölü sayısını 51'e yükseltti. [164] [165]

Arka planda Olympus Dağı ile Kedrinos Lofos'tan şehrin panoramik manzarası

İklim [ değiştir ]

Selanik'in iklimi, üzerinde bulunduğu Ege Denizi'nden doğrudan etkilenir. [166] Şehir, geçişli bir iklim kuşağında yer alır, bu nedenle iklimi birkaç iklime ait özellikler gösterir. Göre Köppen iklim sınıflandırma , şehir sahip Akdeniz iklim ( Csa bir çevreleyen,) , yarı-kuru iklim ( BSK bölgenin çevresi üzerinde görülmektedir). Yıllık ortalama yağış miktarı 450 mm (17,7 inç) olan Pindus yağmur gölgesinin batı rüzgarlarını kurutmasından kaynaklanmaktadır . Bununla birlikte, şehir 20 ila 30 mm (0,79 ila 1,18 inç) arasında bir yaz yağışına sahiptir ve bu da onun Akdeniz iklimi ( Csa) ve kuzeye ve batıya doğru giderek artarak nemli subtropik hale gelir. [167]

Kışlar, sabah donları ile birlikte nispeten kurak geçer. Kar yağışları, aşağı yukarı her kış ara sıra meydana gelir, ancak kar örtüsü birkaç günden fazla sürmez. Bir yılda ortalama 193 sisli gün ile sis yaygındır. [168] En soğuk kışlarda sıcaklıklar -10 ° C'ye (14 ° F) düşebilir. [168] Selanik'te rekor minimum sıcaklık -14 ° C (7 ° F) idi. [169] Ortalama olarak, Selanik yılda 32 gün don (sıfırın altında sıcaklık) yaşar. [168] Şehirde yılın en soğuk ayı, ortalama 24 saatlik sıcaklık 5 ° C (41 ° F) ile Ocaktır. [170] Rüzgar, kış aylarında da olağandır, Aralık ve Ocak'ta ortalama 26 km / sa (16 mil / sa) rüzgar hızına sahiptir. [168]

Selanik'in yazları sıcak ve oldukça kuraktır. [168] Maksimum sıcaklıklar genellikle 30 ° C'nin (86 ° F) üzerine çıkar, [168] ancak nadiren 40 ° C'ye (104 ° F) yaklaşır veya üzerine çıkarlar; [168] Sıcaklığın 32 ° C'nin (90 ° F) üzerinde olduğu ortalama gün sayısı 32'dir. [168] Şehirde kaydedilen maksimum sıcaklık 44 ° C'dir (111 ° F). [168] [169] Yaz aylarında yağmur nadiren düşer, özellikle gök gürültülü fırtınalarda. Yaz aylarında Selanik de kuvvetli sıcak hava dalgaları yaşar . [171] Şehirde yılın en sıcak ayı, ortalama 24 saatlik sıcaklık 26 ° C (79 ° F) ile Temmuz ayıdır. [170]Selanik'te Haziran ve Temmuz için ortalama rüzgar hızı saatte 20 kilometredir (12 mph). [168]

Selanik Havaalanı 1973–2019 için iklim verileri Rakım: 8 m (ekstrem 1963–2019)
AyOcaŞubatMarNisMayısHazTemAğuEylülEkimKasımAralıkYıl
Yüksek ° C (° F) kaydedin23.0
(73.4)
24.0
(75.2)
32.0
(89.6)
31.0
(87.8)
36.0
(96.8)
41,4
(106,5)
44.0
(111.2)
40,4
(104,7)
37,3
(99,1)
32,2
(90,0)
27.0
(80.6)
25.1
(77.2)
44.0
(111.2)
Ortalama yüksek ° C (° F)9,1
(48,4)
11.0
(51.8)
14,5
(58,1)
19.2
(66.6)
24,6
(76,3)
29,6
(85,3)
31,9
(89,4)
30,8
(87,4)
27.1
(80.8)
21.1
(70.0)
15.1
(59.2)
10.7
(51.3)
20,4
(68,7)
Günlük ortalama ° C (° F)5,3
(41,5)
6.8
(44.2)
9,6
(49,3)
13,6
(56,5)
18.7
(65.7)
23,6
(74,5)
25.9
(78.6)
25.0
(77.0)
21,3
(70,3)
16,3
(61,3)
11.0
(51.8)
6.7
(44.1)
15,3
(59,6)
Ortalama düşük ° C (° F)1,4
(34,5)
2,5
(36,5)
4,9
(40,8)
8.0
(46.4)
12.9
(55.2)
17,5
(63,5)
19,8
(67,6)
19.1
(66.4)
15,8
(60,4)
11.6
(52.9)
7.0
(44.6)
3.0
(37.4)
10,3
(50,5)
Düşük ° C (° F) kaydedin−14,2
(6,4)
−10.0
(14.0)
−7.0
(19.4)
−2,0
(28,4)
2.8
(37.0)
6,0
(42,8)
10.0
(50.0)
7,8
(46,0)
3.0
(37.4)
−1,0
(30,2)
−6,2
(20,8)
−9,8
(14,4)
−14,2
(6,4)
Ortalama yağış mm (inç)41.0
(1.61)
28,3
(1,11)
39,3
(1,55)
28,7
(1,13)
39,3
(1,55)
27.9
(1.10)
26,8
(1,06)
17.6
(0.69)
42.7
(1.68)
47.1
(1.85)
34,9
(1,37)
48,5
(1,91)
422,1
(16,61)
Ortalama yağış günleri8.88.39.87.48.05.53.83.66.37.37.39.085.1
Ortalama bağıl nem (%)76.173.072.467.863.855.953.255.362.070.276.878.067.0
Ortalama aylık güneş ışığı saatleri98.7102.6147.2202.6252.7296.4325.7295,8229.9165.5117.8102.62.337,5
Kaynak: [1] [2] [3] Güneş Işığı Saatleri WMO [4]
Selanik Havaalanı 2001-2019 için iklim verileri
AyOcaŞubatMarNisMayısHazTemAğuEylülEkimKasımAralıkYıl
Ortalama yüksek ° C (° F)9,4
(48,9)
11,3
(52,3)
15,2
(59,4)
19,4
(66,9)
25.0
(77.0)
29,8
(85,6)
32,3
(90,1)
32,3
(90,1)
27,2
(81,0)
21,3
(70,3)
15.9
(60.6)
10.6
(51.1)
20,8
(69,4)
Ortalama düşük ° C (° F)2.4
(36.3)
3,7
(38,7)
6.1
(43.0)
9,2
(48,6)
14.1
(57.4)
18.9
(66.0)
21,3
(70,3)
21,3
(70,3)
17,2
(63,0)
12,8
(55,0)
8.4
(47.1)
3.9
(39.0)
11.6
(52.9)
Ortalama yağış mm (inç)37,8
(1,49)
29.0
(1.14)
42,8
(1,69)
32,5
(1,28)
41.6
(1.64)
31.0
(1.22)
28,5
(1,12)
20.6
(0.81)
45.0
(1.77)
45,5
(1,79)
31,9
(1,26)
53.6
(2.11)
439,8
(17,32)
Ortalama yağış günleri9.58.710.17,98.46.24.33.75,97.27.89.389
Ortalama aylık güneş ışığı saatleri118.8123.9172.2208.3267.7306.8348321.4232.9175.8123.7106.82.506,3
Kaynak: [5]

Devlet [ değiştir ]

2011 itibariyle Selanik'in kentsel ve metropol alanları

Kallikratis reformuna göre , 1 Ocak 2011 itibariyle "Selanik Şehri" ni oluşturan Selanik Kentsel Alanı ( Yunanca : Πολεοδομικό Συγκρότημα Θεσσαλονίκης ) altı özerk belediye ( Yunanca : Δήμοι ) ve bir belediye biriminden oluşmaktadır. ( Yunanca : Δημοτική ενότητα ). Selanik Kentsel Alanına dahil olan belediyeler Selanik (şehir merkezi ve nüfus büyüklüğü bakımından en büyüğü), Kalamaria , Neapoli-Sykies , Pavlos Melas ,Kordelio-Evosmos , Ampelokipoi-Menemeni ve Pylaia-Chortiatis belediyesinin bir parçası olan Pylaia ve Panorama belediye birimleri . [3] Kallikratis reformundan önce , Selanik Kent Bölgesi , bürokratik sorunlar yaratan, oldukça küçük boyutta iki kat fazla belediyeden oluşuyordu. [172]

Selanik Belediyesi [ değiştir ]

Belediye Başkanı Yiannis Boutaris (2011-19)

Selanik Belediye ( Yunanca : Δήμος Θεσαλονίκης ) ikinci en kalabalık Yunanistan'da, sonradır Atina 325,182 ikamet nüfuslu, [173] (2011 yılında) ve 19,307 kilometre kare (7,454 mil kare) bir alan. Belediye , 'merkez' veya 'şehir' anlamına gelen Kentro olarak anılan merkezi bölgesi (şehir merkezi) ile Selanik Kentsel Alanının çekirdeğini oluşturur . [174]

Şehrin ilk belediye başkanı Osman Sait Bey, 1912'de Osmanlı İmparatorluğu döneminde belediye başkanlığı kurumu açıldığında atandı . Görevdeki belediye başkanı Konstantinos Zervas'tır . 2011 yılında, Selanik belediyesinin 464.33 milyon € [175] bütçesi varken 2012 bütçesi 409.00 milyon € 'dur. [176]

Diğer [ düzenle ]

Hükümet Konağı , şimdi Makedonya ve Trakya Bakanlığı tarafından tasarlanan, Vitaliano Poselli 1891 yılında
Bölge binası ( Villa Allatini )

Selanik, Yunanistan'ın en büyük ikinci şehridir. Ülkenin kuzey kesimlerinde için etkili bir şehirdir ve başkentidir Orta Makedonya bölgesinde ve Selanik bölgesel biriminde . Makedonya ve Trakya Bakanlığı da şehir olduğunu varlık, Selanik merkezli fiili başkenti Yunan bölgenin içinde Makedonya'ya . [ alıntı gerekli ]

Her yıl Yunanistan Başbakanı'nın , Selanik Uluslararası Fuarı'nın açılış gecesi ekonomi gibi bir dizi konuda yönetiminin politikalarını açıklaması adettendir . 2010 yılında, 2010 Yunanistan borç krizinin ilk aylarında , Yunanistan'ın tüm kabinesi ülkenin geleceğini tartışmak için Selanik'te toplandı. [177]

In Yunanistan Parlamento , Selanik kentsel alan 16 kişilik bölgesi oluşturur. İtibariyle 2019 Yunan yasama seçimlerinde Selanik'te büyük partisi olan Yeni Demokrasi ardından oyların 35,55% ile, Radikal Sol Koalisyon (31,29%) ve Değişim Hareketi (6.05%). [178] Aşağıdaki tablo son seçimlerin sonuçlarını özetlemektedir.

Selanik A için 2019 seçim sonuçları
PartiOylar%VardiyaMilletvekilleri (16)Değişiklik
Yeni Demokrasi107.607% 35,55Increase% 10,26
7/16 (% 44)
Increase3
Radikal Sol Koalisyonu94.697% 31,29Decrease% 4,52
5/16 (% 31)
Decrease1
Değişim Hareketi18.313% 6.05Increase1.73
1/16 (% 6)
Steady0
Yunan Çözümü16.272% 5,38Increase% 5,38
1/16 (% 6)
Increase1
Yunanistan Komünist Partisi16.028% 5,30Decrease% 0.01
1/16 (% 6)
Steady0
MeRA2514.379% 4,75Increase% 4,75
1/16 (% 6)
Increase1
Diğer taraflar (temsil edilmeyen)35.364% 11.68Increase% 5,15Steady0

Şehir manzarası [ düzenle ]

Merkezi Selanik için plan, Ernest Hébrard tarafından . Planın çoğu bugünün şehir merkezinde görülebilir.

Mimari [ düzenle ]

Selanik'teki mimari, kentin Balkanlar'daki tüm tarihi gelişmelerin merkezindeki konumunun doğrudan bir sonucudur. Selanik, ticari öneminin yanı sıra yüzyıllar boyunca bölgenin askeri ve idari merkezi ve bunun ötesinde Avrupa ile Levant arasındaki ulaşım bağlantısı oldu . Avrupa'nın her yerinden tüccarlar, tüccarlar ve mülteciler şehre yerleşti. Bu yeni refah çağında ticari ve kamu binalarına duyulan ihtiyaç, şehir merkezinde büyük yapıların yapılmasına yol açtı. Bu süre zarfında şehir bankalar, büyük oteller, tiyatrolar, depolar ve fabrikaların inşasını gördü. 19. yüzyılın sonlarında ve 20. yüzyılın başlarında kentin en dikkat çekici yapılarından bazılarını tasarlayan mimarlar arasında Vitaliano Poselli ,Pietro Arrigoni , Ksenophon Paionidis , Salvatore Poselli , Leonardo Gennari , Eli Modiano , Moshe Jacques , Joseph Pleyber , Frederic CHARNOT , Ernst Ziller , Max Rubens , Filimon Paionidis , Dimitris Andronikos , Levi Ernst , Angelos Siagas , Alexandros Tzonis ağırlıklı kullanarak ve daha stilleri Eklektisizm , Art Nouveau ve Neobaroque .

Şehir düzeni, 1870'ten sonra, deniz kenarındaki tahkimatların yerini geniş iskelelere bıraktığında ve bugün şehrin ana simgesi olan Beyaz Kule'yi çevreleyenler de dahil olmak üzere şehrin en eski duvarlarının çoğu yıkıldığında değişti . Erken Bizans surlarının bazı kısımları yıkıldığı için bu, şehrin kıyı boyunca doğuya ve batıya doğru genişlemesini sağladı. [179]

Eleftherias Meydanı'nın denize doğru genişlemesi, şehrin yeni ticaret merkezini tamamladı ve o zamanlar şehrin en hareketli meydanlarından biri olarak kabul edildi. Şehir büyüdükçe işçiler fabrikalara ve endüstriyel faaliyetlere yakınlıkları nedeniyle batı bölgelerine taşındı; orta ve üst sınıflar ise yavaş yavaş şehir merkezinden doğudaki banliyölere taşındı ve büyük ölçüde işyerlerini bıraktı. 1917'de, şehri yıkıcı bir yangın süpürdü ve 32 saat boyunca kontrolsüz bir şekilde yandı. [109] Şehrin tarihi merkezini ve mimari mirasının büyük bir bölümünü tahrip etti, ancak daha geniş çapraz caddeler ve anıtsal meydanlar içeren modern gelişimin yolunu açtı. [109] [180]

Ernest Hébrard tarafından tasarlanan, Selanik'in en tanınmış bölgelerinden biri olan Aristoteles Meydanı'nın panoramik görünümü

Şehir merkezi [ değiştir ]

Tsimiski Caddesi'ndeki eski Hotel Astoria , yangın sonrası mimari patlamasının tipik güzel sanatlar mimarisi

1917 Büyük Selanik Yangını'ndan sonra , bir Fransız mimar olan Thomas Mawson ve Ernest Hebrard'ın da aralarında bulunduğu bir mimar ve şehir planlamacı ekibi, Selanik şehir merkezi için (yeniden) inşa tasarımlarının temeli olarak Bizans dönemini seçti . Yeni şehir planı, trafiği sorunsuz bir şekilde yönlendirecek bir sokak ızgarasına sahip eksenleri, çapraz sokakları ve anıtsal meydanları içeriyordu . 1917 planı, gelecekteki nüfus artışları için hükümler ve bugün yeterli olacak ve hala yeterli olan bir cadde ve yol ağını içeriyordu. [109] Kamu binaları için alanlar içeriyordu ve Bizans kiliseleri ile Osmanlı camilerinin restorasyonu için sağlanıyordu.

Ladadika semtinde bir sokak

Ayrıca tarihi merkez olarak da adlandırılan bu bölge, Dimokratias Meydanı (Demokrasi Meydanı, Vardaris olarak da bilinir ) Ladadika (birçok eğlence mekanı ve tavernanın bulunduğu yer), Kapani ( şehrin merkezi Modiano pazarının bulunduğu yer), Diagonios gibi çeşitli bölgelere ayrılmıştır , Navarinou , Rotonda , Ayasofya ve Hippodromio tüm Selanik'in en merkezi noktası etrafında bulunmaktadır, Aristoteles Meydanı'na .

Aristotelous'un çevresindeki çeşitli ticari stoalar, stoa Hirsch , stoa Carasso / Ermou, Pelosov, Colombou, Levi, Modiano , Morpurgo, Mordoch, Simcha, Kastoria, Malakopi, Olympios, Emboron, Rogoti gibi şehrin geçmiş ve şehrin tarihi şahsiyetlerinden isimlendirilmiştir. , Vyzantio, Tatti, Agiou Mina, Karipi vb. [181]

Şehir merkezinin batı kısmı, Selanik'in hukuk mahkemelerine, merkezi uluslararası tren istasyonuna ve limana ev sahipliği yaparken, doğu tarafında şehrin iki üniversitesi olan Selanik Uluslararası Sergi Merkezi , şehrin ana stadyumu , arkeoloji ve Bizans müzeleri, yeni belediye binası ve merkezi parkları ve bahçeleri, yani ΧΑΝΘ ve Pedion tou Areos .

Ano Poli [ değiştir ]

Ano Poli ( Eski Şehir ve kelimenin tam anlamıyla Yukarı Şehir olarak da adlandırılır ), Selanik şehir merkezinin kuzeyinde , 1917'deki büyük yangın tarafından yutulmayan ve Melina Merkouri'nin bakanlık faaliyetleri sırasında UNESCO Dünya Mirası Alanı ilan edilen , miras listesinde yer alan bölgedir . 1980'ler. Selanik'in şehrin en geleneksel bölgesinden oluşuyor, hala küçük taş döşeli sokakları, eski meydanları ve eski Yunan ve Osmanlı mimarisine sahip evleri içeriyor . Selanik şairlerinin, aydınlarının ve bohemlerinin gözde mekanıdır.

Ano Poli'den şehir panoraması

Ano Poli aynı zamanda Selanik'in en yüksek noktasıdır ve bu nedenle kentin akropolü , Bizans kalesi, Heptapyrgion , şehrin kalan surlarının büyük bir kısmı ve ek Osmanlı ve Bizans yapılarının birçoğu hala ayaktadır. . Bölge, Seich Sou Ormanı Milli Parkı'na [182] erişim sağlar ve tüm şehrin ve Thermaic Körfezi'nin panoramik manzarasına sahiptir . Açık günlerde , körfez boyunca yaklaşık 100 km (62 mil) uzaklıktaki Olympus Dağı da ufukta yükselirken görülebilir.

Selanik Belediyesi'nin diğer ilçeleri [ değiştir ]

Xirokrini mahallesi.

Selanik Belediyesi'nde tarihi merkeze ve Yukarı Şehir'e ek olarak şu ilçeler de yer almaktadır: Xirokrini, Dikastiria (Mahkemeler), Ichthioskala, Palaios Stathmos, Lachanokipoi, Behtsinari, Panagia Faneromeni, Doxa, Saranta Ekklisies, Evangelistria, Triandria , Agia Triada-Faliro, Ippokrateio, Charilaou, Analipsi, Depot ve Toumba.

Eski Tren İstasyonu (Palaios Stathmos) bölgesinde Yunanistan Holokost Müzesi'nin inşaatına başlandı . [183] [184] Bu bölgede Selanik Demiryolu Müzesi , Su Temini Müzesi ve şehrin Milos , Fix , Vilka (dönüştürülmüş eski fabrikalarda yer alan) gibi büyük eğlence mekanları yer almaktadır. Yeni Selanik Tren İstasyonu Monastiriou caddesi üzerinde yer almaktadır.

Diğer genişletilmiş ve yoğun yerleşik yerleşim alanları, "Ano Toumpa" ve "Kato Toumpa" olarak ikiye ayrılan Charilaou ve Toumba'dır . Toumba, adını kapsamlı arkeolojik araştırmaların yapıldığı Toumba'nın eşsesli tepesinden almıştır. 1922 Küçük Asya felaketinden ve nüfus mübadelesinden (1923–24) sonra mülteciler tarafından oluşturuldu. On Exochon caddesi ( Rue Campagnes des bugün Vasilissis Olgas ve Vasileos Georgiou Caddeleri), şehrin en varlıklı sakinlerine 1920'lerin ev kadar oldu ve alan kapanışı ile birlikte anda şehrin en dıştaki banliyöleri oluşan Thermaic Körfezi'nin , 19. yüzyıldan kalma tatil villaları bölgeyi tanımlamaktadır. [185] [186]

Selanik kentsel alanı [ değiştir ]

Kültür merkezi ( MOMus - Modern Sanat Müzesi - Costakis Koleksiyonu ve Kuzey Yunanistan Ulusal Tiyatrosu'nun iki tiyatrosu dahil ), eski Katolik Lazarist Manastırı (Moni Lazariston).

Selanik'in daha geniş kentsel alanının diğer bölgeleri Ampelokipi, Eleftherio - Kordelio, Menemeni, Evosmos, Ilioupoli, Stavroupoli, Nikopoli, Neapoli, Polichni, Paeglos, Meteora, Agios Pavlos, Kalamaria, Pylaia ve Sykies'dir. Kuzeybatı Selanik, Stavroupoli'de bulunan ve günümüzde şehrin en önemli kültür merkezlerinden birini oluşturan, MOMus - Museum of Modern Art - Costakis Koleksiyonu ve Kuzey Yunanistan Ulusal Tiyatrosu'nun iki tiyatrosunun da bulunduğu Moni Lazariston'a ev sahipliği yapmaktadır . [187] [188]

Kuzeybatı Selanik'te , Sykies'deki Manos Katrakis açık hava Tiyatrosu , Neapolis'teki Mülteci Helenizm Müzesi, Neapoli'deki belediye tiyatrosu ve açık hava tiyatrosu ve Menemeni Yeni Kültür Merkezi (Ellis Alexiou Caddesi) gibi birçok kültürel bina bulunmaktadır. . [189] Perikleous Caddesi'ndeki Stavroupolis Botanik Bahçesi 1000 bitki türü içerir ve 5 dönümlük yeşillik bir vahadır. Kordelio'daki Çevre Eğitim Merkezi 1997'de tasarlandı ve Selanik'teki biyoklimatik tasarıma sahip birkaç kamu binasından biridir. [190]

Kuzeybatı Selanik, içinden geçen Monastiriou, Lagkada ve 26is Octovriou caddelerinin yanı sıra A1 otoyolunun Selanik şehir merkezine beslenen uzantısı ile Selanik şehrine ana giriş noktasını oluşturuyor. Bölge, Makedonya Şehirlerarası Otobüs Terminali'ne ( KTEL ), Yeni Selanik Tren İstasyonu'na , Zeitenlik Müttefiklerinin anıt askeri mezarlığına ev sahipliği yapmaktadır .

Yunan Direnişi savaşçılarının onuruna da anıtlar dikildi , çünkü bu bölgelerde Direniş çok aktifti: Sykies'teki Yunan Ulusal Direniş anıtı, Stavroupolis'teki Yunan Ulusal Direniş anıtı, Eptalofos Sq. Naziler tarafından 11 Mayıs 1944'te Xirokrini'de infaz edilen genç Rumların anıtı. Eptalofos'ta, 15 Mayıs 1941'de, ülkenin işgalinden bir ay sonra, Yunanistan'ın ilk direniş örgütü olan "Eleftheria" gazetesi ve Selanik kentindeki ilk kaçak matbaası ile kuruldu. [191] [192]

Vasilissis Olgas Caddesi üzerindeki Villa Mordoch (kemer. Xenophon Paionidis )

Bugün güneydoğu Selanik, içinden Megalou Alexandrou, Georgiou Papandreou (Antheon), Vasileos Georgiou, Vasilissis Olgas, Delfon, Konstantinou Karamanli (Nea Egnatia) ve Papanastasiou caddelerinin geçmesiyle bir şekilde şehir merkezinin bir uzantısı haline geldi. geleneksel olarak stationτεπώ ( Depó , lit. Dépôt) olarak adlandırılan bölge , bir Fransız şirketinin sahip olduğu eski tramvay istasyonunun adından geliyor.

Kalamaria belediyesi de Selanik'in güneydoğusundadır ve ilk olarak 1922'den sonra Küçük Asya ve Doğu Trakya'dan gelen Yunan mülteciler tarafından iskan edilmiştir . [193] Kuzey Yunanistan Deniz Komutanlığı ve eski kraliyet sarayı ( Palataki olarak adlandırılır ) inşa edilmiştir . Karabournaki burnunun en batı noktası .

Paleochristian ve Bizans anıtları (UNESCO) [ değiştir ]

Kilise ve Aziz Demetrius 4. yüzyılda inşa edilen şehrin koruyucu azizi, en büyük Yunanistan'da bazilika ve kentteki en ünlü Paleochristian eserlerinden biridir.
Selanik'teki Panagia Chalkeon kilisesi (MS 1028), şehirdeki 15 UNESCO Dünya Mirası listesinden biri

Çünkü sırasında Selanik'in önemi erken Hıristiyan ve Bizans dönemlerine, şehir önemli ölçüde gelişmesine katkıda bulunmuş birçok hrıstiyanlık eserlerin ev sahipliği yapmaktadır Bizans sanatı ve mimarisinin boyunca Bizans İmparatorluğu'nun yanı sıra Sırbistan . [157] İmparatorluk Bizans mimarisinin evrimi ve Selanik'in refahı, özellikle şehrin gelişmeye devam ettiği İmparatorluğun [157] ilk yıllarında el ele gider . O sırada Roma imparatoru Galerius Kompleksi Hagios Demetrios'un ilk kilisesinin yanı sıra inşa edildi . [157]

8. yüzyılda olarak, kent önemli bir yönetim merkezi haline gelmişti Bizans İmparatorluğu ve çoğunun ele İmparatorluğu 'ın Balkan işlerine. [194] Bu süre içinde, şehir gibi şimdi UNESCO Dünya Mirası olan daha dikkate değer Hıristiyan kiliseleri, gelişmesine tanıklık Saint Catherine Kilisesi , Selanik Ayasofya , Acheiropoietos Kilisesi , Panagia Chalkeon Kilisesi . [157] Ne zaman Osmanlı İmparatorluğu 1430 yılında Selanik'te kontrol altına aldı, şehrin kiliselerin çoğu dönüştürüldü cami , [157]ama bu güne kadar hayatta kaldı. Paul Lucas ve Abdulmejid I [157] gibi gezginler , şehrin Osmanlı kontrolü altında olduğu yıllarda şehrin Hristiyan anıtlarındaki zenginliğini belgeliyorlar .

The church of Hagios Demetrios was burnt down during the Great Thessaloniki Fire of 1917, as did many other of the city's monuments, but it was rebuilt. During World War II, the city was extensively bombed and as such many of Thessaloniki's paleochristian and Byzantine monuments were heavily damaged.[194] Some of the sites were not restored until the 1980s. Thessaloniki has more UNESCO World Heritage Sites listed than any other city in Greece, a total of 15 monuments.[157] They have been listed since 1988.[157]

Urban sculpture[edit]

The equestrian statue of Alexander the Great on the promenade

There are around 150 statues or busts in the city.[195] Probably the most famous one is the equestrian statue of Alexander the Great on the promenade, placed in 1973 and created by sculptor Evangelos Moustakas. An equestrian statue of Constantine I, by sculptor Georgios Dimitriades, is located in Demokratias Square. Other notable statues include that of Eleftherios Venizelos by sculptor Giannis Pappas, Pavlos Melas by Natalia Mela, the statue of Emmanouel Pappas by Memos Makris, Chrysostomos of Smyrna by Athanasios Apartis, such as various creations by George Zongolopoulos.

Thessaloniki 2012 Program[edit]

Aerial view of the newest section of the promenade (Nea Paralia), which was opened to the public in January 2014

With the 100th anniversary of the 1912 incorporation of Thessaloniki into Greece, the government announced a large-scale redevelopment program for the city of Thessaloniki, which aims in addressing the current environmental and spatial problems[196] that the city faces. More specifically, the program will drastically change the physiognomy of the city[196] by relocating the Thessaloniki International Exhibition Center and grounds of the Thessaloniki International Fair outside the city centre and turning the current location into a large metropolitan park,[197] redeveloping the coastal front of the city,[197] relocating the city's numerous military camps and using the grounds and facilities to create large parklands and cultural centers;[197] and the complete redevelopment of the harbor and the Lachanokipoi and Dendropotamos districts (behind and near the Port of Thessaloniki) into a commercial business district,[197] with possible highrise developments.[198]

The plan also envisions the creation of new wide avenues in the outskirts of the city[197] and the creation of pedestrian-only zones in the city centre.[197] Furthermore, the program includes plans to expand the jurisdiction of Seich Sou Forest National Park[196] and the improvement of accessibility to and from the Old Town.[196] The ministry has said that the project will take an estimated 15 years to be completed, in 2025.[197]

Part of the plan has been implemented with extensive pedestrianization's within the city center by the municipality of Thessaloniki and the revitalization the eastern urban waterfront/promenade, Νέα Παραλία (Néa Paralía, lit. new promenade), with a modern and vibrant design. Its first section opened in 2008, having been awarded as the best public project in Greece of the last five years by the Hellenic Institute of Architecture.[199]

The municipality of Thessaloniki's budget for the reconstruction of important areas of the city and the completion of the waterfront, opened in January 2014, was estimated at around 28.2 million (US$39.9 million) for the year 2011 alone.[200]

Economy[edit]

Economy of Thessaloniki
GDP of Thessaloniki.svg
GDP of the Thessaloniki regional unit 2000–2011
Statistics
GDP€19.851 billion (PPP, 2011)[201]
GDP rank2nd in Greece
GDP growth
-7.8% (2011)[201]
GDP per capita
€17,200 (PPP, 2011)[201]
Labour force
534,800 (2010)[202]
Unemployment30.2% (2014)[203]
The old stock exchange (Banque de Salonique) in Stoa Malakopi
A building of the Bank of Greece

Thessaloniki rose to economic prominence as a major economic hub in the Balkans during the years of the Roman Empire. The Pax Romana and the city's strategic position allowed for the facilitation of trade between Rome and Byzantium (later Constantinople and now Istanbul) through Thessaloniki by means of the Via Egnatia.[204] The Via Egnatia also functioned as an important line of communication between the Roman Empire and the nations of Asia,[204] particularly in relation to the Silk Road. With the partition of the Roman Emp. into East (Byzantine) and West, Thessaloniki became the second-largest city of the Eastern Roman Empire after New Rome (Constantinople) in terms of economic might.[49][204] Under the Empire, Thessaloniki was the largest port in the Balkans.[205] As the city passed from Byzantium to the Republic of Venice in 1423, it was subsequently conquered by the Ottoman Empire. Under Ottoman rule the city retained its position as the most important trading hub in the Balkans.[94] Manufacturing, shipping and trade were the most important components of the city's economy during the Ottoman period,[94] and the majority of the city's trade at the time was controlled by ethnic Greeks.[94] Plus, the Jewish community was also an important factor in the trade sector.[citation needed]

Historically important industries for the economy of Thessaloniki included tobacco (in 1946 35% of all tobacco companies in Greece were headquartered in the city, and 44% in 1979)[206] and banking (in Ottoman years Thessaloniki was a major center for investment from western Europe, with the Bank of Thessaloniki (French: Banque de Salonique) having a capital of 20 million French francs in 1909).[94]

Services[edit]

View of the port

The service sector accounts for nearly two thirds of the total labour force of Thessaloniki.[207] Of those working in services, 20% were employed in trade, 13% in education and healthcare, 7.1% in real estate, 6.3% in transport, communications & storing, 6.1% in the finance industry & service-providing organizations, 5.7% in public administration & insurance services and 5.4% in hotels & restaurants.[207]

The city's port, the Port of Thessaloniki, is one of the largest ports in the Aegean and as a free port, it functions as a major gateway to the Balkan hinterland.[10][208] In 2010, more than 15.8 million tons of products went through the city's port,[209] making it the second-largest port in Greece after Aghioi Theodoroi, surpassing Piraeus. At 273,282 TEUs, it is also Greece's second-largest container port after Piraeus.[210] As a result, the city is a major transportation hub for the whole of south-eastern Europe,[211] carrying, among other things, trade to and from the neighbouring countries.[citation needed]

In recent years Thessaloniki has begun to turn into a major port for cruising in the eastern Mediterranean.[208] The Greek ministry of tourism considers Thessaloniki to be Greece's second most important commercial port,[212] and companies such as Royal Caribbean International have expressed interest in adding the Port of Thessaloniki to their destinations.[212] A total of 30 cruise ships are expected to arrive at Thessaloniki in 2011.[212]

The GDP of Thessaloniki in comparison to that of Attica and the rest of the country (2012)

Companies[edit]

  • Recent history

After WWII and the Greek civil war, heavy industrialization of the city's suburbs began in the middle 1950s.[213]

During the 1980s a spate of factory shut downs occurred, mostly of automobile manufacters, such as Agricola (vehicles), AutoDiana, EBIAM, Motoemil, Pantelemidis-TITAN and C.AR (automobiles). Since the 1990s, companies took advantage of cheaper labour markets and more lax regulations in other countries, and among the largest companies to shut down factories were Goodyear,[214] AVEZ pasta industry (one of the first industrial factories in northern Greece, built in 1926),[215] Philkeram Johnson, AGNO dairy and VIAMIL.

However, Thessaloniki still remains a major business hub in the Balkans and Greece, with a number of important Greek companies headquartered in the city, such as the Hellenic Vehicle Industry (ELVO), Namco (automobiles), Astra Airlines, Ellinair, Pyramis and MLS Multimedia, which introduced the first Greek-built smartphone in 2012.[216]

  • Industry

In early 1960s, with the collaboration of Standard Oil and ESSO-Pappas, a large industrial zone was created, containing refineries, oil refinery and steel production (owned by Hellenic Steel Co.). The zone attracted also a series of different factories during the next decades.

Titan Cement has also facilities outside the city, on the road to Serres,[217] such as the AGET Heracles, a member of the Lafarge group, and Alumil SA.

Multinational companies such as Air Liquide, Cyanamid, Nestlé, Pfizer, Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company and Vivartia have also industrial facilities in the suburbs of the city.[218]

  • Foodstuff

Foodstuff or drink companies headquartered in the city include the Macedonian Milk Industry (Mevgal), Allatini, Barbastathis, Hellenic Sugar Industry, Haitoglou Bros, Mythos Brewery, Malamatina, while the Goody's chain started from the city.[citation needed]

The American Farm School also has important contribution in food production.[219]

Macroeconomic indicators[edit]

In 2011, the regional unit of Thessaloniki had a Gross Domestic Product of 18.293 billion (ranked 2nd amongst the country's regional units),[201] comparable to Bahrain or Cyprus, and a per capita of €15,900 (ranked 16th).[201] In Purchasing Power Parity, the same indicators are €19,851 billion (2nd)[201] and €17,200 (15th) respectively.[201] In terms of comparison with the European Union average, Thessaloniki's GDP per capita indicator stands at 63% the EU average[201] and 69% in PPP[201] – this is comparable to the German state of Brandenburg.[201] Overall, Thessaloniki accounts for 8.9% of the total economy of Greece.[201] Between 1995 and 2008 Thessaloniki's GDP saw an average growth rate of 4.1% per annum (ranging from +14.5% in 1996 to −11.1% in 2005) while in 2011 the economy contracted by −7.8%.[201]

Demographics[edit]

Historical ethnic statistics[edit]

The tables below show the ethnic statistics of Thessaloniki during the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.

YearTotal PopulationJewishTurkishGreekBulgarianRomaOther
1890[120]118,000100%55,00047%39,00022%28,00014%14,0008%5,5002%8,5007%
Around 1913[119]157,889100%61,43939%45,88929%39,95625%6,2634%2,7212%1,6211%

Population growth[edit]

The municipality of Thessaloniki is the most populous in the Thessaloniki Urban Area. Its population has increased in the latest census and the metropolitan area's population rose to over one million. The city forms the base of the Thessaloniki metropolitan area, with latest census in 2011 giving it a population of 1,030,338.[173]

Population of the Urban and Metropolitan areas of Thessaloniki
YearMunicipalityUrban areaMetropolitan arearank
2001363,987[222]786,212[222]954,027[222]Greece 2nd
2004386,627[224]995,766[224]Greece 2nd
2011325,182824,676[173]1,030,338[173]Greece 2nd

Jews of Thessaloniki[edit]

Paths of Jewish immigration to the city

The Jewish population in Greece is the oldest in mainland Europe (see Romaniotes). When Paul the Apostle came in Thessaloniki he taught in the area of what today is called Upper City. Later, during the Ottoman period, with the coming of Sephardic Jews from Spain, the community of Thessaloniki became mostly Sephardic. Thessaloniki became the largest center in Europe of the Sephardic Jews, who nicknamed the city la madre de Israel (Israel's mother)[145] and "Jerusalem of the Balkans".[225] It also included the historically significant and ancient Greek-speaking Romaniote community. During the Ottoman era, Thessaloniki's Sephardic community was half of the population according to the Ottoman Census of 1902 and almost 40% the city's population of 157,000 about 1913; Jewish merchants were prominent in commerce until the ethnic Greek population increased after Thessaloniki was incorporated into the Kingdom of Greece in 1913. By the 1680s, about 300 families of Sephardic Jews, followers of Sabbatai Zevi, had converted to Islam, becoming a sect known as the Dönmeh (convert), and migrated to Salonika, whose population was majority Jewish. They established an active community that thrived for about 250 years. Many of their descendants later became prominent in trade.[226] Many Jewish inhabitants of Thessaloniki spoke Judeo-Spanish, the Romance language of the Sephardic Jews.[227]

Jewish family of Salonika in 1917

From the second half of the 19th century with the Ottoman reforms, the Jewish community had a new revival. Many French and especially Italian Jews (from Livorno and other cities), influential in introducing new methods of education and developing new schools and intellectual environment for the Jewish population, were established in Thessaloniki. Such modernists introduced also new techniques and ideas from the industrialized Western Europe and from the 1880s the city began to industrialize. The Italian Jews Allatini brothers led Jewish entrepreneurship, establishing milling and other food industries, brickmaking and processing plants for tobacco. Several traders supported the introduction of a large textile-production industry, superseding the weaving of cloth in a system of artisanal production. Notable names of the era include among others the Italo-Jewish Modiano family and the Allatini. Benrubis founded also in 1880 one of the first retail companies in the Balkans.

After the Balkan Wars, Thessaloniki was incorporated into the Kingdom of Greece in 1913. At first the community feared that the annexation would lead to difficulties and during the first years its political stance was, in general, anti-Venizelist and pro-royalist/conservative. The Great Thessaloniki Fire of 1917 during World War I burned much of the center of the city and left 50,000 Jews homeless of the total of 72,000 residents who were burned out.[136] Having lost homes and their businesses, many Jews emigrated: to the United States, Palestine, and Paris. They could not wait for the government to create a new urban plan for rebuilding, which was eventually done.[228]

After the Greco-Turkish War in 1922 and the bilateral population exchange between Greece and Turkey, many refugees came to Greece. Nearly 100,000 ethnic Greeks resettled in Thessaloniki, reducing the proportion of Jews in the total community. After this, Jews made up about 20% of the city's population. During the interwar period, Greece granted Jewish citizens the same civil rights as other Greek citizens.[136] In March 1926, Greece re-emphasized that all citizens of Greece enjoyed equal rights, and a considerable proportion of the city's Jews decided to stay. During the Metaxas regime, the stance towards Jews became even better.

"Jews not welcomed" sign during the Axis occupation

World War II brought a disaster for the Jewish Greeks, since in 1941 the Germans occupied Greece and began actions against the Jewish population. Greeks of the Resistance helped save some of the Jewish residents.[145] By the 1940s, the great majority of the Jewish Greek community firmly identified as both Greek and Jewish. According to Misha Glenny, such Greek Jews had largely not encountered "anti-Semitism as in its North European form."[229]

In 1943, the Nazis began brutal actions against the historic Jewish population in Thessaloniki, forcing them into a ghetto near the railroad lines and beginning deportation to concentration and labor camps. They deported and exterminated approximately 96% of Thessaloniki's Jews of all ages during the Holocaust.[230] The Thessaloniki Holocaust memorial in Eleftherias ("Freedom") Square was built in 1997 in memory of all the Jewish people from Thessaloniki who died in the Holocaust. The site was chosen because it was the place where Jewish residents were rounded up before embarking to trains for concentration camps.[231][232] Today, a community of around 1200 remains in the city.[145] Communities of descendants of Thessaloniki Jews – both Sephardic and Romaniote – live in other areas, mainly the United States and Israel.[230] Israeli singer Yehuda Poliker recorded a song about the Jewish people of Thessaloniki, called "Wait for me, Thessaloniki".

YearTotal
population
Jewish
population
Jewish
percentage
Source[136]
184270,00036,00051%Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer
187090,00050,00056%Greek schoolbook (G.K. Moraitopoulos, 1882)
1882/8485,00048,00056%Ottoman government census
1902126,00062,00049%Ottoman government census
1913157,88961,43939%Greek government census
1917271,15752,00019%[233]
194350,000
2000363,987[222]1,0000.27%

Others[edit]

Since the late 19th century, many merchants from Western Europe (mainly from France and Italy) were established in the city. They had an important role in the social and economic life of the city and introduced new industrial techniques. Their main district was what is known today as the "Frankish district" (near Ladadika), where the Catholic church designed by Vitaliano Poselli is also situated.[234][235] A part of them left after the incorporation of the city into the Greek kingdom, while others, who were of Jewish faith, were exterminated by the Nazis.

The Bulgarian community of the city increased during the late 19th century.[236] The community had a Men's High School, a Girl's High School, a trade union and a gymnastics society. A large part of them were Catholics, as a result of actions by the Lazarists society, which had its base in the city.

Another group is the Armenian community which dates back to the Byzantine and Ottoman periods. During the 20th century, after the Armenian Genocide and the defeat of the Greek army in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22), many fled to Greece including Thessaloniki. There is also an Armenian cemetery and an Armenian church at the center of the city.[237]

Culture[edit]

Leisure and entertainment[edit]

The building of the Society of Macedonian studies, seat of the National Theatre of Northern Greece.

Thessaloniki is regarded not only as the cultural and entertainment capital of northern Greece[194][238] but also the cultural capital of the country as a whole.[11] The city's main theaters, run by the National Theatre of Northern Greece (Greek: Κρατικό Θέατρο Βορείου Ελλάδος) which was established in 1961,[239] include the Theater of the Society of Macedonian Studies, where the National Theater is based, the Royal Theater (Βασιλικό Θέατρο)-the first base of the National Theater-, Moni Lazariston, and the Earth Theater and Forest Theater, both amphitheatrical open-air theatres overlooking the city.[239]

The title of the European Capital of Culture in 1997 saw the birth of the city's first opera[240] and today forms an independent section of the National Theatre of Northern Greece.[241] The opera is based at the Thessaloniki Concert Hall, one of the largest concert halls in Greece. Recently a second building was also constructed and designed by Japanese architect Arata Isozaki. Thessaloniki is also the seat of two symphony orchestras, the Thessaloniki State Symphony Orchestra and the Symphony Orchestra of the Municipality of Thessaloniki.Olympion Theater, the site of the Thessaloniki International Film Festival and the Plateia Assos Odeon multiplex are the two major cinemas in downtown Thessaloniki. The city also has a number of multiplex cinemas in major shopping malls in the suburbs, most notably in Mediterranean Cosmos, the largest retail and entertainment development in the Balkans.

Thessaloniki is renowned for its major shopping streets and lively laneways. Tsimiski Street, Mitropoleos and Proxenou Koromila avenue are the city's most famous shopping streets and are among Greece's most expensive and exclusive high streets. The city is also home to one of Greece's most famous and prestigious hotels, Makedonia Palace hotel, the Hyatt Regency Casino and hotel (the biggest casino in Greece and one of the biggest in Europe) and Waterland, the largest water park in southeastern Europe.

The city has long been known in Greece for its vibrant city culture, including having the most cafes and bars per capita of any city in Europe; and as having some of the best nightlife and entertainment in the country, thanks to its large young population and multicultural feel. Lonely Planet listed Thessaloniki among the world's "ultimate party cities".[242]

Parks and recreation[edit]

Marina of Aretsou
Part of the coastline of the southeastern suburb of Peraia on the Thermaic Gulf, with views towards Thessaloniki

Although Thessaloniki is not renowned for its parks and greenery throughout its urban area, where green spaces are few, it has several large open spaces around its waterfront, namely the central city gardens of Palios Zoologikos Kipos (which is recently being redeveloped to also include rock climbing facilities, a new skatepark and paintball range),[243] the park of Pedion tou Areos, which also holds the city's annual floral expo; and the parks of the Nea Paralia (waterfront) that span for 3 km (2 mi) along the coast, from the White Tower to the concert hall.

The Nea Paralia parks are used throughout the year for a variety of events, while they open up to the Thessaloniki waterfront, which is lined up with several cafés and bars; and during summer is full of Thessalonians enjoying their long evening walks (referred to as "the volta" and is embedded into the culture of the city). Having undergone an extensive revitalization, the city's waterfront today features a total of 12 thematic gardens/parks.[244]

Thessaloniki's proximity to places such as the national parks of Pieria and beaches of Chalkidiki often allow its residents to easily have access to some of the best outdoor recreation in Europe; however, the city is also right next to the Seich Sou forest national park, just 3.5 km (2 mi) away from Thessaloniki's city center; and offers residents and visitors alike, quiet viewpoints towards the city, mountain bike trails and landscaped hiking paths.[245] The city's zoo, which is operated by the municipality of Thessaloniki, is also located nearby the national park.[246]

Other recreation spaces throughout the Thessaloniki metropolitan area include the Fragma Thermis, a landscaped parkland near Thermi and the Delta wetlands west of the city center; while urban beaches that have continuously been awarded the blue flags,[247] are located along the 10 km (6 mi) coastline of Thessaloniki's southeastern suburbs of Thermaikos, about 20 km (12 mi) away from the city center.

Museums and galleries[edit]

Because of the city's rich and diverse history, Thessaloniki houses many museums dealing with many different eras in history. Two of the city's most famous museums include the Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki and the Museum of Byzantine Culture.

The Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki was established in 1962 and houses some of the most important ancient Macedonian artifacts,[248] including an extensive collection of golden artwork from the royal palaces of Aigai and Pella.[249] It also houses exhibits from Macedon's prehistoric past, dating from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age.[250] The Prehistoric Antiquities Museum of Thessaloniki has exhibits from those periods as well.

View of the Thessaloniki Science Center and Technology Museum (also known as NOESIS) on the road to Thermi

The Museum of Byzantine Culture is one of the city's most famous museums, showcasing the city's glorious Byzantine past.[251] The museum was also awarded Council of Europe's museum prize in 2005.[252] The museum of the White Tower of Thessaloniki houses a series of galleries relating to the city's past, from the creation of the White Tower until recent years.[253]

One of the most modern museums in the city is the Thessaloniki Science Center and Technology Museum and is one of the most high-tech museums in Greece and southeastern Europe.[254] It features the largest planetarium in Greece, a cosmotheater with the country's largest flat screen, an amphitheater, a motion simulator with 3D projection and 6-axis movement and exhibition spaces.[254] Other industrial and technological museums in the city include the Railway Museum of Thessaloniki, which houses an original Orient Express train, the War Museum of Thessaloniki and others. The city also has a number of educational and sports museums, including the Thessaloniki Olympic Museum.

The Atatürk Museum in Thessaloniki is the historic house where Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of modern-day Turkey, was born. The house is now part of the Turkish consulate complex, but admission to the museum is free.[255] The museum contains historic information about Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his life, especially while he was in Thessaloniki.[255]Other ethnological museums of the sort include the Historical Museum of the Balkan Wars, the Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki and the Museum of the Macedonian Struggle, containing information about the freedom fighters in Macedonia and their struggle to liberate the region from the Ottoman yoke.[256] Construction on the Holocaust Museum of Greece began in the city in 2018.[184]

The city also has a number of important art galleries. Such include the Macedonian Museum of Contemporary Art, housing exhibitions from a number of well-known Greek and foreign artists.[257] The Teloglion Foundation of Art is part of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and includes an extensive collection of works by important artists of the 19th and 20th centuries, including works by prominent Greeks and native Thessalonians.[258] The Thessaloniki Museum of Photography also houses a number of important exhibitions, and is located within the old port of Thessaloniki.[259]

Archaeological sites[edit]

The Roman Forum (Ancient Agora)
View of the Roman Forum (Ancient Agora)

Thessaloniki is home to a number of prominent archaeological sites. Apart from its recognized UNESCO World Heritage Sites, Thessaloniki features a large two-terraced Roman forum[260] featuring two-storey stoas,[261] dug up by accident in the 1960s.[260] The forum complex also boasts two Roman baths,[262] one of which has been excavated while the other is buried underneath the city.[262] The forum also features a small theater,[260][262] which was also used for gladiatorial games.[261] Although the initial complex was not built in Roman times, it was largely refurbished in the 2nd century.[262] It is believed that the forum and the theater continued to be used until at least the 6th century.[263]

Another important archaeological site is the imperial palace complex which Roman emperor Galerius, located at Navarinou Square, commissioned when he made Thessaloniki the capital of his portion of the Roman Empire.[44][45] The large octagonal portion of the complex, most of which survives to this day, is believed to have been an imperial throne room.[261] Various mosaics from the palatial complex have also survived.[264] Some historians believe that the complex must have been in use as an imperial residence until the 11th century.[263]

Not far from the palace itself is the Arch of Galerius,[264] known colloquially as the Kamara. The arch was built to commemorate the emperor's campaigns against the Persians.[261][264] The original structure featured three arches;[261] however, only two full arches and part of the third survive to this day. Many of the arches' marble parts survive as well,[261] although it is mostly the brick interior that can be seen today.

Other monuments of the city's past, such as the Incantadas, a Caryatid portico from the ancient forum, have been removed or destroyed over the years. The Incantadas in particular are on display at the Louvre.[260][265] Thanks to a private donation of €180,000, it was announced on 6 December 2011 that a replica of the Incantadas would be commissioned and later put on display in Thessaloniki.[265]

The construction of the Thessaloniki Metro inadvertently started the largest archaeological dig not only of the city, but of Northern Greece; the dig spans 20 km2 (7.7 sq mi) and has unearthed 300,000 individual artefacts from as early as the Roman Empire and as late as the Great Thessaloniki Fire of 1917.[266][267] Ancient Thessaloniki's Decumanus Maximus was also found and 75 metres (246 ft) of the marble-paved and column-lined road were unearthed along with shops, other buildings, and plumbing, prompting one scholar to describe the discovery as "the Byzantine Pompeii".[268] Some of the artefacts will be put on display inside the metro stations, while Venizelou will feature the world's first open archaeological site located within a metro station.[269][270]

Festivals[edit]

Olympion Theatre, seat of the International Film Festival

Thessaloniki is home of a number of festivals and events.[271] The Thessaloniki International Fair is the most important event to be hosted in the city annually, by means of economic development. It was first established in 1926[272] and takes place every year at the 180,000 m2 (1,937,503.88 sq ft) Thessaloniki International Exhibition Center. The event attracts major political attention and it is customary for the Prime Minister of Greece to outline his administration's policies for the next year, during event. Over 250,000 visitors attended the exposition in 2010.[273] The new Art Thessaloniki, is starting first time 29.10. – 1 November 2015 as an international contemporary art fair. The Thessaloniki International Film Festival is established as one of the most important film festivals in Southern Europe,[274] with a number of notable film makers such as Francis Ford Coppola, Faye Dunaway, Catherine Deneuve, Irene Papas and Fatih Akın taking part, and was established in 1960.[275] The Documentary Festival, founded in 1999, has focused on documentaries that explore global social and cultural developments, with many of the films presented being candidates for FIPRESCI and Audience Awards.[276]

The Dimitria festival, founded in 1966 and named after the city's patron saint of St. Demetrius, has focused on a wide range of events including music, theatre, dance, local happenings, and exhibitions.[277] The "DMC DJ Championship" has been hosted at the International Trade Fair of Thessaloniki, has become a worldwide event for aspiring DJs and turntablists. The "International Festival of Photography" has taken place every February to mid-April.[278] Exhibitions for the event are sited in museums, heritage landmarks, galleries, bookshops and cafés. Thessaloniki also holds an annual International Book Fair.[279]

Between 1962–1997 and 2005–2008 the city also hosted the Thessaloniki Song Festival,[280] Greece's most important music festival, at Alexandreio Melathron.[281]

In 2012 the city hosted its first pride parade, Thessaloniki Pride, which took place between 22 and 23 June.[282] It has been held every year ever since, however in 2013 transgender people participating in the parade became victims of police brutality. The issue was soon settled by the government.[283] The city's Greek Orthodox Church leadership has consistently rallied against the event, but mayor Boutaris sided with Thessaloniki Pride, saying also that Thessaloniki would seek to host EuroPride 2020.[284] The event was given to Thessaloniki in September 2017, beating Bergen, Brussels, and Hamburg.[285]

Sports[edit]

The main stadium of the city is the Kaftanzoglio Stadium (also home ground of Iraklis F.C.), while other main stadiums of the city include the football Toumba Stadium and Kleanthis Vikelidis Stadium home grounds of PAOK FC and Aris F.C., respectively, all of whom are founding members of the Greek league.

Being the largest "multi-sport" stadium in the city, Kaftanzoglio Stadium regularly plays host to athletics events; such as the European Athletics Association event "Olympic Meeting Thessaloniki" every year; it has hosted the Greek national championships in 2009 and has been used for athletics at the Mediterranean Games and for the European Cup in athletics. In 2004 the stadium served as an official Athens 2004 venue,[286] while in 2009 the city and the stadium hosted the 2009 IAAF World Athletics Final.

Thessaloniki's major indoor arenas include the state-owned Alexandreio Melathron, P.A.O.K. Sports Arena and the YMCA indoor hall. Other sporting clubs in the city include Apollon FC based in Kalamaria, Agrotikos Asteras F.C. based in Evosmos and YMCA. Thessaloniki has a rich sporting history with its teams winning the first ever panhellenic football (Aris FC),[287] basketball (Iraklis BC),[288] and water polo (AC Aris)[289] tournaments.

During recent years, PAOK FC has emerged as the strongest football club of the city, winning also the Greek championship without a defeat (2018–19 season).

The city played a major role in the development of basketball in Greece. The local YMCA was the first to introduce the sport to the country, while Iraklis B.C. won the first ever Greek championship.[288] From 1982 to 1993 Aris B.C. dominated the league, regularly finishing in first place. In that period Aris won a total of 9 championships, 7 cups and one European Cup Winners' Cup. The city also hosted the 2003 FIBA Under-19 World Championship in which Greece came third. In volleyball, Iraklis has emerged since 2000 as one of the most successful teams in Greece[290] and Europe – see 2005–06 CEV Champions League.[291] In October 2007, Thessaloniki also played host to the first Southeastern European Games.[292]

The city is also the finish point of the annual Alexander The Great Marathon, which starts at Pella, in recognition of its Ancient Macedonian heritage.[293]There are also aquatic and athletic complexes such as Ethniko and Poseidonio.

Main sports clubs in Thessaloniki
ClubFoundedVenueCapacityNotes
GS Iraklis1908
(originally as Macedonikos Gymnasticos Syllogos)
Kaftanzoglio National Stadium Olympic Rings.svg27,770
Ivanofeio Indoor HallPanhellenic titles in football, basketball, rugby, volleyball. Volleyball Champions League finalists (3 times)
Maccabi Thessaloniki1908Historically representative of the Jewish community. Today members of any religious faith
AC Aris Thessaloniki1914Kleanthis Vikelidis Stadium22,800
Alexandreio Melathron (Palais des Sports)5,500Panhellenic titles in football, basketball, volleyball, waterpolo. Three European Cups in basketball
YMCA Thessaloniki (ΧΑΝΘ)1921Presence in A1 basketball. Major role in introduction of basketball in Greece
Megas Alexandros1923Presence in First Division of Football Panhellenic Championship
P.A.O.K.1926Toumba Stadium28,703
P.A.O.K. Sports Arena10,000Panhellenic titles in football, basketball, volleyball, handball. Two European Cups in basketball. Most time winners in women's football
Apollon Kalamarias/Pontou1926Kalamaria Stadium6,500
M.E.N.T.1926Presence in A1 basketball
V.A.O.1926Presence in A1 basketball. Panhellenic titles in handball
Makedonikos F.C.1928Makedonikos Stadium8,100Presence in first division of men's football
Agrotikos Asteras F.C.1932Evosmos Stadium
Aias Evosmou1967DAK Evosmou

Media[edit]

Thessaloniki is home to the ERT3 TV-channel and Radio Macedonia, both services of Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation (ERT) operating in the city and are broadcast all over Greece.[294]The municipality of Thessaloniki also operates three radio stations, namely FM100, FM101 and FM100.6;[citation needed] and TV100, a television network which was also the first non-state-owned TV station in Greece and opened in 1988.[citation needed] Several private TV-networks also broadcast out from Thessaloniki, with Makedonia TV being the most popular.

The city's main newspapers and some of the most circulated in Greece, include Makedonia, which was also the first newspaper published in Thessaloniki in 1911 and Aggelioforos. A large number of radio stations also broadcast from Thessaloniki as the city is known for its music contributions.

TV broadcasting[edit]

Press[edit]

Notable Thessalonians[edit]

Mosaic of Saint Demetrius of Thessaloniki in the Church of Saint Demetrius in Thessaloniki

Throughout its history, Thessaloniki has been home to a number of well-known figures. It was also the birthplace or base of various Saints and other religious figures, such as Demetrius of Thessaloniki, Cyril and Methodius (creators of the first Slavic alphabet), Saint Mitre (Saint Demetrius, not to be confused with the previous), Gregorios Palamas, Matthew Blastares, Eustathius of Thessalonica and Patriarch Philotheus I of Constantinople. Other Byzantine-era notable people included jurist Constantine Armenopoulos, historian Ioannis Kaminiates, Demetrius Triclinius, Thomas Magistros, the anti-Palamian theologians Prochoros and Demetrios Kydones, such as scholars Theodorus Gaza (Thessalonicensis) and Matthaios Kamariotis.

Many of the country's best-known musicians and movie personalities are from Thessaloniki, such as Zoe Laskari, Costas Hajihristos, Stella Haskil, Giannis Dalianidis, Maria Plyta, Harry Klynn, Antonis Remos, Paschalis Terzis, Nikos Papazoglou, Nikolas Asimos, Giorgos Hatzinasios, Alberto Eskenazi, Stavros Kouyioumtzis, Giannis Kalatzis, Natassa Theodoridou, Katia Zygouli, Kostas Voutsas, Takis Kanellopoulos, Titos Vandis, Manolis Chiotis, Dionysis Savvopoulos, Marinella, Yvonne Sanson and the classical composer Emilios Riadis. Additionally, there have been a number of politicians born in the city: Ioannis Skandalidis, Alexandros Zannas, Evangelos Venizelos, Christos Sartzetakis, fourth President of Greece, and Yiannis Boutaris. Sports personalities from the city include Nikos Galis, Georgios Roubanis, Giannis Ioannidis, Faidon Matthaiou, Alketas Panagoulias, Panagiotis Fasoulas, Eleni Daniilidou, Traianos Dellas, Giorgos Koudas, Kleanthis Vikelidis, Christos Kostis, Dimitris Salpingidis and Nikos Zisis. Benefactor Ioannis Papafis, architect Lysandros Kaftanzoglou and writers, such as Grigorios Zalykis, Manolis Anagnostakis, Kleitos Kyrou, Albertos Nar, Giorgos Ioannou, Elias Petropoulos, Kostis Moskof, Rena Molho and Dinos Christianopoulos are also from Thessaloniki.

The city is also the birthplace or base of a number of international personalities, which include Bulgarians (Atanas Dalchev), Jews (Moshe Levy, Maurice Abravanel, Isaak Benrubi, Isaac and Daniel Carasso, Raphaël Salem, Baruch Uziel, Shlomo Halevi Alkabetz, Salamo Arouch), Slav Macedonians (Dimo Todorovski), Italians (Luisa Poselli, Giacomo Poselli, Vittorio Citterich), French (Louis Dumont), Spanish (Juana Mordó), Turks (Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Nâzım Hikmet, Afet İnan, Cahit Arf, Mehmet Cavit Bey, Sabiha Sertel, Abdul Kerim Pasha, Hasan Tahsin Uzer, Hasan Tahsin) and Armenians (Jean Tatlian).

Cuisine[edit]

Bougatsa, typical Thessalonian treat

Because Thessaloniki remained under Ottoman rule for about 100 years more than southern Greece, it has retained a lot of its Eastern character, including its culinary tastes.[295] Spices in particular play an important role in the cuisine of Thessaloniki,[295] something which is not true to the same degree about Greece's southern regions.[295] Thessaloniki's Ladadika borough is a particularly busy area in regards to Thessalonian cuisine, with most tavernas serving traditional meze and other such culinary delights.[295]

Bougatsa, a breakfast pastry, which can be either sweet or savory, is very popular throughout the city and has spread around other parts of Greece and the Balkans as well. Another popular snack is koulouri.

Notable sweets of the city are Trigona, Roxákia, Kourkoubinia and Armenonville. A stereotypical Thessalonian coffee drink is Frappé coffee. Frappé was invented in the Thessaloniki International Fair in 1957 and has since spread throughout Greece and Cyprus to become a hallmark of the Greek coffee culture.

Tourism[edit]

Hotel Luxemvourgo on Komninon Street (1924, arch. Eli Modiano)
View of the Makedonia Palace on the promenade

A touristic boom took place in the 2010s, during the years of mayor Boutaris, especially from the neighboring countries, Austria, Israel and Turkey. In 2010 the sleepovers of foreign tourists in the city were around 250,000. In 2018 the sleepovers of foreign tourists was estimated to reach 3,000,000 people.

Music[edit]

The city is viewed as a romantic one in Greece, and as such Thessaloniki is commonly featured in Greek songs.[296] There are a number of famous songs that go by the name 'Thessaloniki' (rebetiko, laïko etc.) or include the name in their title.[297]

During the 1930s and 40s the city became a center of the Rebetiko music, partly because of the Metaxas censorship, which was stricter in Athens. Vassilis Tsitsanis wrote some of his best songs in Thessaloniki.

The city is the birthplace of significant composers in the Greek music scene, such as Manolis Chiotis, Stavros Kouyioumtzis and Dionysis Savvopoulos. It is also notable for its rock music scene and its many rock groups; some became famous such as Xylina Spathia, Trypes or the pop rock Onirama.

Between 1962–1997 and 2005–2008 the city also hosted the Thessaloniki Song Festival. In the Eurovision Song Contest 2013 Greece was represented by Koza Mostra and Agathonas Iakovidis, both from Thessaloniki.

In popular culture[edit]

Education[edit]

Aerial view of the campus of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (to the right), the largest university in Greece and the Balkans

Thessaloniki is a major center of education for Greece. Three of the country's largest universities are located in central Thessaloniki: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, the University of Macedonia and the International Hellenic University. Aristotle University was founded in 1926 and is currently the largest university in Greece[14] by number of students, which number at more than 80,000 in 2010,[14] and is a member of the Utrecht Network. For the academic year 2009–2010, Aristotle University was ranked as one of the 150 best universities in the world for arts and humanities and among the 250 best universities in the world overall by the Times QS World University Rankings,[298] making it one of the top 2% of best universities worldwide.[299] Leiden ranks Aristotle University as one of the top 100 European universities and the best university in Greece, at number 97.[300] Since 2010, Thessaloniki is also home to the Open University of Thessaloniki,[301] which is funded by Aristotle University, the University of Macedonia and the municipality of Thessaloniki.

Additionally, a TEI (Technological Educational Institute), namely the Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, is located in the western suburb of Sindos; home also to the industrial zone of the city. Numerous public and private vocational institutes (Greek: IEK) provide professional training to young students, while a large number of private colleges offer American and UK academic curriculum, via cooperation with foreign universities. In addition to Greek students, the city hence attracts many foreign students either via the Erasmus programme for public universities, or for a complete degree in public universities or in the city's private colleges. As of 2006 the city's total student population was estimated around 200,000.[302]

Transport[edit]

Tram[edit]

The old tram lines on Agiou Mina Street

Tram was the main, oldest and most popular public urban mean of Thessalonians in the past. It functioned from 1893 to 1957, when it was disestablished by the government of Konstantinos Karamanlis. The French Compagnie de Tramways et d' Éclairage Électrique de Salonique operated it from 1912 until 1940, when the company was purchased by the Hellenic State. The operating base and tram station was in the district of Dépôt.

Before the economic crisis of 2009, there were various proposals for new tram lines.[303]

Bus [edit]

An OASTH bus

Thessaloniki Urban Transport Organization (OASTH) operates buses as the only form of public transport in Thessaloniki. It was founded in 1957 and operates a fleet of 604 vehicles on 75 routes throughout the Thessaloniki metropolitan area.[304] International and regional bus links are provided by KTEL at its Macedonia InterCity Bus Terminal, located to the west of the city centre.[305]

Metro[edit]

Map of the Thessaloniki Metro under construction (Lines 1 and 2), and its planned extensions

The creation of a metro system for Thessaloniki goes back as far as 1918, when Thomas Hayton Mawson and Ernest Hébrard proposed the creation of a Thessaloniki Metropolitan Railway.[306] In 1968 a circular metro line was proposed, and in 1987 the first serious proposal was presented and construction briefly started in 1988, before stalling and finally being abandoned due to lack of funding.[307] Both the 1918 and 1988 proposals ran almost the identical route to the current Line 1.

Construction on Thessaloniki's current metro began in 2006 and is classified as a megaproject: it has a budget of €1.57 billion ($1.77 billion).[308] Line 1 and Line 2 are currently under construction and will enter service, in phases, between 2020 and 2021.[309][310] Line 1 is 9.5 kilometres (5.9 mi) long and stops at 13 stations, while Line 2 is 4.8 kilometres (3.0 mi) long and stops at a further 5 stations, while also calling at 11 of the Line 1 stations.[311][312] Important archaeological discoveries have been made during construction, and some of the system's stations will house archaeological exhibitions.[313] One stop, Venizelou, will house the only open archaeological site within a metro station anywhere in the world.[314]

Line 2 is to be expanded further, with a loop extension to the western suburbs of the city, towards Evosmos and Stavroupoli, and one overground extension towards the Airport.[315] The western extension is more high-priority than the airport one, as the airport will be served by a 10-minute shuttle bus to the terminus of Line 2, Mikra.[312]

Once opened in 2020, it is expected that 320,000 people will use the metro every day, or 116 million people every year.[316]

Commuter/suburban rail (Proastiakos)[edit]

Suburban Railway services

Commuter rail services have recently been established between Thessaloniki and the city of Larissa (the service is known in Greek as the "Proastiakos", meaning "Suburban Railway"). The service is operated using Siemens Desiro EMU trains on a modernised electrified double track and stops at 11 refurbished stations, covering the journey in 1 hour and 33 minutes.[317] Furthermore, an additional line has also been established, although with the use of regional trains, between Thessaloniki and the city of Edessa.

Thessaloniki Airport "Makedonia"[edit]

Thessaloniki International Airport

International and domestic air traffic to and from the city is served by Thessaloniki Airport "Makedonia". The short length of the airport's two runways means that it does not currently support intercontinental flights, although a major extension – lengthening one of its runways into the Thermaic Gulf – is under construction,[318] despite considerable opposition from local environmental groups. Following the completion of the runway works, the airport will be able to serve intercontinental flights and cater for larger aircraft in the future. Construction of a second terminal began in September 2018[319] and finished in February 2021, three months ahead of schedule.[320]

Railways and ferry connections[edit]

Because of the Greek economic crisis, all international train links from the city were suspended in February 2011.[321] Until then, the city was a major railway hub for the Balkans, with direct connections to Sofia, Skopje, Belgrade, Moscow, Vienna, Budapest, Bucharest and Istanbul, alongside Athens and other destinations in Greece. Daily through trains to Sofia and Belgrade were restarted in May 2014. Thessaloniki remains one of Greece's most important railway hubs and has the biggest marshalling yard in the country.

Regional train services within Greece (operated by TrainOSE, the Hellenic Railways Organization's train operating company), link the city with other parts of the country, from its central railway passenger station, called the "New railway station" located at the western end of Thessaloniki's city center.

The Port of Thessaloniki connects the city with seasonal ferries to the Sporades and other north Aegean islands, with its passenger terminal, being one of the largest in the Aegean Sea basin; having handled around 162,731 passengers in 2007.[322] Meanwhile, ongoing actions have been going on for more connections and the port is recently being upgraded, as Thessaloniki is also slowly turning into a major tourist port for cruising in the eastern Mediterranean.

Motorways[edit]

Road map of Thessaloniki and its suburbs from OpenStreetMap
Part of the ring road (Peripheriaki Odos)

Thessaloniki lies on the crossroads of the A1/E75, A2/E90 and A25 motorways; which connect the city with other parts of the country, as well as the Republic of North Macedonia, Bulgaria and Turkey.

The city itself is bypassed by the C-shaped Thessaloniki Inner Ring Road (Esoteriki Peripheriaki Odos, Greek: Εσωτερική Περιφεριακή Οδός), which all of the above motorways connect onto it. The western end of the route begins at the junction with the A1/A2 motorways in Lachanagora District. Clockwise it heads northeast around the city, passing through the northwestern suburbs, the forest of Seich Sou and through to the southeast suburb/borough of Kalamaria. The ring road ends at a large junction with the A25 motorway, which then continues south to Chalkidiki, passing through Thessaloniki's outer southeast suburbs.

The speed limit on this motorway is 90 kilometres per hour (56 mph), it currently has three traffic lanes for each direction and forms the city's most vital road link; handling more than 120,000 vehicles daily,[323] instead of 30,000 as it was meant to handle when designed in 1975.[324]An outer ring road known as Eksoteriki Peripheriaki Odos (Greek: Εξωτερική Περιφεριακή Οδός, outer ring road) carries all traffic that completely bypasses the city. It is Part of Motorway 2.[325]

Future plans[edit]

Taxi in Thessaloniki

Despite the large effort that was made in 2004 to improve the motorway features of the Thessaloniki ring road, the motorway is still insufficient to tackle Thessaloniki's increasing traffic and metropolitan population. To tackle this problem, the government has introduced large scale redevelopment plans throughout 2011[326] with tenders expected to be announced within early 2012;[326] that include the total restructuring of the A16 in the western side of the city, with new junctions and new emergency lanes throughout the whole length of the motorway.[326] In the eastern side an even larger scale project has been announced, for the construction of a new elevated motorway section above the existing, which would allow faster travel for drivers heading through to the airport and Chalkidiki that do not wish to exit into the city, and will decongest the existing motorway for city commuters.[327] The plans also include adding one more lane in each direction on the existing A16 ring road and on the A25 passing through Thessaloniki's southeast suburbs, from its junction with the A16 in Kalamaria, up to the airport exit (ΕΟ67); which will make it an 8 lane highway.[326]

Additional long term plans further include the extension of the planned outer ring road known as Eksoteriki Peripheriaki Odos (Greek: Εξωτερική Περιφεριακή Οδός, outer ring road) to circle around the entire Thessaloniki metropolitan area, crossing over the Thermaic Gulf from the east, to join with the A1/E75 motorway. Preliminary plans have been announced which include a 4.5 km (3 mi) bridge over the gulf, as part of the southern bypass of the city; to cater for the large number of travellers from Macedonia and the rest of Greece heading to the airport, and to the increasingly popular tourist region of Chalkidiki.[328]

International relations[edit]

Commemorative stele in Melbourne

Consulates[citation needed]

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Thessaloniki is twinned with:[329]

Twinning
Collaborations

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

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  2. ^ Mackridge, Peter; Yannakakis, Eleni (1 March 1997). Ourselves and others: the development of a Greek Macedonian cultural identity since 1912. Berg. ISBN 9781859731338.
  3. ^ a b c d Thessaloniki is an urban area defined in 1985 through Law 1561/1985. Since the Kallikratis reform it has been made up of the municipalities of Thessaloniki (325,182), Kalamaria (91,518), Neapoli–Sykies (84,741), Pavlos Melas (99,245), Kordelio–Evosmos (101,753), Ampelokipoi–Menemeni (52,127), and the municipal units of Pylaia and Panorama (34,625 and 17,444; part of the municipality of Pylaia–Chortiatis). The Thessaloniki metropolitan area was defined by the same law and is made up of the Urban area plus the municipalities of Delta (45,839), Oraiokastro (38,317), Thermaikos (50,264), Thermi (53,201), and the municipal unit of Chortiatis (18,041; part of the municipality of Pylaia–Chortiatis), for a total of 1,030,338. See Εφημερίς της Κυβερνήσεως της Ελληνικής Δημοκρατίας [Government Gazette of the Hellenic Republic] (in Greek). Athens: National Printing House. 6 September 1985. p. 2332. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
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